Mihaly Biro

Mihaly Biro

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Mihaly Biro was born in Budapest, Hungary on 30th November 1886. After studying art in Berlin, Paris and London, Biro returned to Budapest became famous for his social protest posters. Biro was active in the Hungarian revolutionary movement and became at Makes a Good Historian?


Related Reading

Related Reading


Mihály Biró 1919 Május 1 1919

This version of Biró's Red Man with a Hammer was one of many produced during the tumult of Hungary’s 1919 revolution. The poster advertised May Day celebrations, a holiday associated with the international worker's movement it would be the biggest public event during the 133 days of the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic. Embodying the energy of the revolutionary masses, Biró's red man glorified the common worker as the equivalent of mythological figures Hercules, or Vulcan at his forge. The concept of posters as public decorations for May Day was at least partly inspired by Soviet Russian precedents. "The defiant simplicity, the removal of peripheral things, and the menacing power of the delivery—all these are the hallmarks of Biró," wrote the critic Pál Nadái at the time.


At the heart of the exhibition are 53 sketches by Mihály Birós (1886�) from the MAK collection which document the main political events in Hungary and Austria in the interwar period. Influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement as well as the Guild of Handicraft, which Birós learned about on study trips through Europe, the poster designer, draughtsman, sculptor and painter rose to become the government commissar for political posters in Budapest after the First World War. It was his pictures for the Social Democratic Workers’ Party and comprehensible advertising posters (for Julius Meinl, Abadie and MEM, etc.), as well as his sentimentally expressive works for UFA that led to him being one of the most sought-after graphic artists of the 1920s in Austria, where he lived from 1919 to 1928.

Curator Kathrin Pokorny-Nagel, Head of the MAK Library and Works on Paper Collection

In the MAK Works on Paper Room , the extensive inventory of the library and Works on Paper Collection will be showcased highlighting different aspects in a series of exhibitions. The themes from recent years prove the diversity of the program arising in turn from the complexity of the collection: from contemporary graphic design, posters, artists' books, and architectural projects to ornamental prints and color wood cuts. The theme for 2010, "Approaches to Red Vienna", offers insight into two different aspects of graphic design.

Publication "MIHÁLY BIRÓ. Pathos in Red" , edited by Peter Noever, with contributions by Michael Diers, Sebastian Hackenschmidt, Peter Klinger, Peter Noever, Kathrin Pokorny-Nagel. MAK Studies 19, German/English, 144 pages, MAK Vienna/Verlag für moderne Kunst Nürnberg 2010, € 20 MAK Design Shop

Artprints of highest quality of Mihály Biró posters out of the unique MAK collection, available at the MAK Design Shop

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The Ballpoint Pen Becomes a Fad

Ballpoint pens were guaranteed to write for two years without refilling and sellers claimed they were smear-proof. Reynolds advertised his pen as one that could "write under water."

Then Eversharp sued Reynolds for copying the design that Eversharp had acquired legally. The 1888 patent by John Loud would have invalidated everyone's claims, but no one knew that at the time. Sales skyrocketed for both competitors, but Reynolds’ pen tended to leak and skip. It often failed to write. Eversharp’s pen did not live up to its own advertisements either. A very high volume of pen returns occurred for both Eversharp and Reynolds.

The ballpoint pen fad ended due to consumer unhappiness. Frequent price wars, poor quality products, and heavy advertising costs hurt both companies by 1948. Sales nosedived. The original $12.50 asking price dropped to less than 50 cents per pen.


In largely rural Oklahoma, amateur wrestling was less an inheritance from ancient civilizations and more a product of high spirits, brawny young men, and barnyard scuffling. It became a singular sport for a rowdy young state. Farmhands called it "catch-as-catch-can" and gladly graduated to roped rings with rough canvas mats, long before the advent of high-tech mats and protective headgear.

Over the last eighty years traditional wrestling has brought Oklahoma more national and international wrestling medals, trophies, titles, and championships than any other state. Since 1932 twelve Oklahomans have stood on the top step to receive Olympic gold medals. Oklahoma State University (OSU) wrestlers have brought home nine and University of Oklahoma (OU) three. These included Wayne Wells (Oklahoma City), Bobby Pearce (Cushing), Frank Lewis (Cushing), Shelby Wilson (Ponca City), Doug Blubaugh (Ponca City), Jack Van Bebber (Perry), Yojiro Uetake, Dave Schultz, Mark Schultz, John Smith (Del City), Kenny Monday (Tulsa), and Kendall Cross (Mustang). Thirty-two men from OSU and nineteen from OU have made U.S. Olympic teams.

The sport of wrestling has a long and noble history. Charlemagne, William the Conqueror, and Peter the Great enjoyed and encouraged it. George Washington, Zachary Taylor, and Abraham Lincoln relished their wrestling victories. Oklahoma's Carl Albert also distinguished himself in the sport. Wrestling historian Mihaly Biro asserts that abroad, wrestling is deemed "a living antiquity . . . linking the past, present and future of all cultures" and celebrated in art, poetry, and history. In Oklahoma wrestling matches do not use historical practices such as the ancient Greek method of urging wrestlers on with a whip or early Chinese wrestling attire of ornate masks. Opponents do not bite, use weapons, grease the body, or grab an opponent's belt. The victor receives no laurel wreath nor pheasant feather.

Nevertheless, fans have never complained about the lack of pageantry. If not as colorful as in other cultures, modern-day Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling remain every bit as intense. Those in the stands often have all the excitement they can handle when Oklahoma collegiate wrestlers take to the mat. Knowledgeable fans can prove a major force in a close match as they respond to the action with roars of encouragement. In the Sooner State fans wait anxiously for the Bedlam Series (matches between OU and OSU) and then display the results on bumper stickers or license plates.

In 1915 Oklahoma A&M Coach Edward C. Gallagher, a superb athlete himself, used his engineering training to develop wrestling in "Cowboy Country." The sport was one of many he managed as athletic director. Gallagher is said to have pioneered more than four hundred holds. He took a sport admired for individual prowess and melded it into a team sport. At his death in 1940 the New York Times called him "the Dean of Collegiate Wrestling." His successor, Art Griffith, had powerhouse teams that constantly claimed victories with a fluid style. No two of his men wrestled alike, posing a dilemma for opponents in an era in which most teammates used the same predictable holds. Griffith's unique point-scoring system was accepted across the nation and made matches easier to follow.

The state's mastery of collegiate wrestling exploded into national prominence in the 1930s and has continued, spirited and undiluted. Cars and travel were limited, and a paved road was a rarity. Recruiting was unknown, and grapplers were all homegrown. Backbreaking labor in wheat and cotton fields provided both the physical strength and the psychological determination that is today honed in the weight room. As the sport was never heavily funded, wrestling coaches pinched pennies during the Great Depression. College teams often shelved cross-state rivalries, worked out together, shared cars, and traveled together out of state. Typically, the Oklahomans wore cowboy boots, ten-gallon hats, and other western finery that startled East Coast tournament hosts. Performances were equally flamboyant, with Oklahoma wrestlers capturing medal after medal and winning thousands of fans.

In the 1950s and 1960s Myron Roderick of Oklahoma State University tapped promising international wrestlers when no one else noticed them. Roderick fielded seven National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship teams. Wrestlers trained by Tommy Chesbro and Joe Seay found coaching jobs around the nation and built teams capable of battling back at the OSU dynasty. At the University of Oklahoma the respected Port Robertson and Tommy Evans also created All-Americans, Olympians, and future coaches.

With thirty team victories since 1928 Oklahoma State leads all other colleges in NCAA championships. Rival Iowa holds twenty, and the OU Sooners have seven. In individual NCAA titles OSU leads seventy-four universities with 122 individual NCAA titles. OU has 62. During brief membership in the NCAA, Central State University, now the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO), and Southwestern Oklahoma State College, now Southwestern Oklahoma State University, each earned 2. UCO continued to be a dominant national force. OSU has produced 382 All-Americans. OU has had 238, Central State 7, and Southwestern Oklahoma 18. Fourteen student athletes from OSU have been named NCAA tournament Outstanding Wrestlers, with six from OU. At the same time, wrestling has fostered strength, drive, endurance, confidence, and self-discipline.

College wrestling is fed by a sturdy system of junior and senior high school, hometown club, and Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) programs. In the early years organization was needed, and in 1911 Oklahoma educators pulled together the Oklahoma Secondary School Activities Association (OSSAA), a central oversight group for youth activities that ranged from marching band to fine arts to all sports. Rapid expansion continued under the leadership of Lee K. Anderson from 1927 to 1967. Annually there have been thirty-two different state championship activities in both athletics and nonathletics. Since 1918 eighty-one state high school wrestling championship tournaments have been held. Sixteen wrestlers have claimed four-time state titles. Two of those have completed four years of high school competition undefeated.

In 2002 the OSSAA launched an innovative thrust in health care for wrestlers. It applies a workable, scientific approach to the sport's top problem, weight management. Key elements include teaching good nutrition, toughening rules on "pulling" weight, moving weigh-in times to within an hour or two of competition, and stressing wrestling close to the athlete's natural weight.

Another organization that started small was the United States Wrestling Federation (USWF), which settled in Stillwater in 1971. The USWF guides amateur wrestling at all levels. It was designed to unify rules, refereeing, pairings, and tournament operations across America, so that each region operated in the same way. Vigorous educational efforts increased the growth of the sport nationally and abroad. USWF's dynamic growth evolved into the present national governing body for the sport, USA Wrestling. It is now headquartered in Colorado Springs, where Olympic-caliber wrestlers train year around.

Stillwater's sprawling National Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum stresses national heritage. Displays honor distinguished wrestlers, coaches, and contributors to the sport, and a library houses national and international wrestling publications and a significant collection of rare volumes dating back four hundred years. Also on view is a life-size statue, The Wrestlers, a copy of an original by ancient Greek sculptor Cephisodotus.

At the beginning of the twenty-first century wrestling no longer resembles the scuffling popular in prestatehood years. Summer tournaments and training camps sharpen skills, building tomorrow's champions, but academic accomplishment is also emphasized. Wrestling has faced shaky times in recent years. When Title IX enforced equality of sports for women, more than a hundred universities and junior colleges complied by closing wrestling programs shifting funds elsewhere. In Oklahoma, however, the sport of wrestling has endured and flourished, heartened by a bountiful harvest of state, national, international, and Olympic titles.


Mihaly Biro, The Roots of Wrestling (Budapest, Hungary: LAMA Printing and Distributing Co., Ltd., 2001).

W. G. Brown, NCAA Wrestling Record Book (N.p.: N.p., March 2002).

Doris Dellinger, Intercollegiate Athletics (Stillwater: Oklahoma State University, 1987).

Doris Dellinger, Ride'em, Cowboys! The Story of Wrestling's Dynasty (Stillwater: Cowboy Wrestling Club, 1977).

Otis Wile, "Oklahoma State Sports Memoirs: The Chronological Story of Sports at Oklahoma State University From the Beginning in the 1890s through the 1960s [Manuscript]," Special Collections and University Archives, Edmon Low Library, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.

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Users agree not to download, copy, modify, sell, lease, rent, reprint, or otherwise distribute these materials, or to link to these materials on another web site, without authorization of the Oklahoma Historical Society. Individual users must determine if their use of the Materials falls under United States copyright law's "Fair Use" guidelines and does not infringe on the proprietary rights of the Oklahoma Historical Society as the legal copyright holder of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and part or in whole.

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The following (as per The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
Doris Dellinger, &ldquoWrestling,&rdquo The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture,

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Today in History: Mihaly Biro born in 1886

Today in History: Mihaly Biro born in 1886

133 years ago today, Mihaly Biro, arguably the most important internationally known Hungarian poster designer, was born. Biro is widely considered to be the founder of the illustrated political poster and his creations between the wars spread far beyond the borders of his home country.

#MihalyBiro #PosterArt #VintagePoster #VintagePosters #vintage #art #paper #graphic #graphics #artoftheday #picofhteday #fun #cool #posterconnection #originalposter #vintagefinds #interiordesign #vintagehome #vintagedecor #graphicdesign #designporn

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Ballpoint Pen History

A final and perfected version of the ballpoint came into existence in 1942 but it still faced major competition from the fountain pen. Initially it found a niche market as a fashionable and useful accessory, but then made a major breakthrough when it was discovered that the pen could be used at high altitude. This technological advantage resulted in the pen being adopted by the British and American airforces giving the ballpoint pen a captive market.

Further inroads were made in its popularity when, with a much-reduced price tag, the pen found it’s way into the British market place. Laszlo Biro displayed entrepreneurial flare by managing to secure significant financial backing for the manufacture of the ballpoint pen in Argentina but ultimately lost control of the Biro company along with the patent rights he had established. These passed to another individual called Henry Martin who effectively took over production of the ballpoint pen from Laszlo Biro.

There is no information available to establish whether this was due to business naivety or whether that was the intention and that from Biro’s viewpoint he achieved his objective and was simply disposing of a valuable asset.

It cannot be denied that Biro Swan under the control of Martin enjoyed some success and established the ballpoint pen as the dominant design in the market. However it is mostly due to the efforts of Marcel Bich, who founded a manufacturing company to make his own patented design of ballpoint pens, that the ballpoint pen holds it’s current market position.

The BiC Crystal, which is the direct descendent of the Biro, holds the largest market share today. This has been achieved through a policy of continuous improvement and strict quality control practices coupled with process innovations geared towards ever-lower production costs and subsequent selling price, some of the key characteristics of a successful innovation process.

Mihály Biró: White Terror in Hungary during the Horthy Regime

The series of 20 postcard sized images that follow were published in 1946 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Selecting the image [right] will take you to the next image. Use the arrows to go forward or back.

Each grim image is printed on thin paper rather than on a stiffer board that would better withstand a trip through the postal system. The image [right] appears on the wrapper, and is simply titled 'Horthy' an aged victim of extensive torture hangs from the descending Y the artist's signature springs from the foot of this dead or dying man. Printed on the inside of the wrapper in Hungarian, French, English, Spanish and German, is the title of the series, The White Terror in Hungary During the Regime Horthy, along with accompanying captions for each of the 20 images.

Admiral Miklós Horthy was head of a right wing, anti-Communist, often anti-Semitic counter-revolutionary government that controlled Hungary from 1920 through the end of World War II.

Information on the wrapper:
"Szabad Szo"
("Libre Palabra")
Tucuman 313, BUENOS AIRES, Argentina

The first edition of this series was made in 1920, in Vienna by Mihály Biró. In Europe, during the regime of Horthy and the Nazis, all existing examples of this work were destroyed by the fascist authorities. **

La primera edició de esta serie de dibujos fué hecha en 1920 en Viena por Michael Biró. Durante el ré Horthy y nazi las autoridades fascistas destruyeron en Europa todos los ejemplares existents de esta obra.

These images were made on the basis of facts elicited by a British Parliamentary commission. **

Ces dessins ont été executés sur des faits acusés dans le rapport de la Commission Parlamentaire britannique.

** "The Wedgewood Report (named after the British labor representative J. C. Wedgewood) was the report of a commission which was invited by the Hungarian government to weaken the reports about the atrocities in Hungary (according to the government's ideas). The commission, however, was successful in shedding some light into this dark affair, largely due to the testimonies given by the emigrants in Vienna."

Based on all possible sources and authentic reports, Biró created his 'Drawings of Horror.' With these 20 sheets, he incurred the fury of the Horthy regime. In Vienna, where Biró was living and working at the time, and following protests from the Hungarian Embassy, the drawings were banned from public display.

from the book by Emil Horn, Mihály Biró, PlakatKonzepte, Hannover, 1996.

By Alexander Roob

The Melton Prior Institute is represented in the exhibition "Turning Points. The Twentieth Century through 1914, 1939, 1989 and 2004 " at the Hungarian National Gallery Budapest with an extensive installation. The arrangement "Gondolj Horthyra / Think about Horthy" which opens up this display of contemporary artworks reflecting the complex history of the 20th century through the example of Hungary, confronts two outstanding examples of Hungarian graphic art. Both works are documentations of war, torture and terror and were for various reasons in the country itself hidden from the public eye for decades: The renowned Horthy-cycle by Mihály Biró (1886&ndash1948), which is shown together with a presentation of the outline history of his interventionist art and a graphic cycle on the Korean War by Bencze László (1907 -1992), which was created thirty years later.

The latter work, a series of fourteen pen drawings by Bencze László from the collections of the Hungarian National Gallery, entitled "Gondolj Koreara / Think about Korea,&ldquo has won the prestigious Kossuth Prize in 1952 and was subsequently published as a portfolio of offsets. The central subject is the Sinchon Massacre, which took place in North Korea between 17 October and 7 December 1950. It resulted in over 30,000 victims, mostly civilians. This war crime was blamed by the Communists on the invading American army. As with Picasso&rsquos famous painting, Massacre in Korea (1951), Bencze&rsquos series was inspired by Goya. Its motifs and compositions also show the influence of the Chinese woodcut movement led by Lu Xun and associated artists, such as Li Hua, Zhao Yannian and Zheng Yefu.

Bencze László: Think of Korea, Budapest 1952

In contrast to the distant idealized approach of László, Mihály Biró´s graphical interpretations of the investigation reports on the White Terror in Hungary and the anti-Semitic pogroms are still able to touch and shock one in their artless, drastic access. Two copies of this lithographic cycle, which Biró has published in in 1920 in his Austrian exile under the title "Horthy&ldquo, are currently stored in the depot of the National Museum Budapest. The series has lost none of its explosive nature, quite the contrary. The eponymous Regent Miklós Horthy, who as the Commander of the National Army was internationally made responsible for the atrocities, is currently vindicated by the ruling party of Viktor Orbán. Horthy is the central symbolic figure, which connects the aggressive Magyarization of the Hungarian aristocracy on the eve of the first world war not only with 1944 but also with the status quo of 2014.

Mihály Biró:Horthy, Vienna, 1920 (exhibition view)

Mihály Biró: &bdquoRun faster you damned&hellip!&ldquo, in: Horthy, Vienna, 1920

Mihály Biró: &bdquoLook at that jewish father of yours!&ldquo, in: Horthy, Vienna, 1920

Mihály Biró: The beasts!, in: Horthy, Vienna, 1920

The drastic depictions of the White Terror and the &ldquolegal arrests&rdquo were based on the detailed investigation by the British parliamentarian Josiah C. Wedgewood, as well as on personal reports and other official documents. Biró published the reports in graphic detail, not even shying away from including the head of state in the scenes, as a kind of accusation.

Mihály Biró: &bdquoThe legal order&ldquo re-established !, in: Horthy, Vienna, 1920

Mihály Biró: &bdquoThe govenor" has a good time, in: Horthy, Vienna, 1920

Mihály Biró: "Hurry up! The mission is at the door!" , in: Horthy, Vienna, 1920

Besides this folder of lithographs, Biró also drew a smaller, postcard version of the Terror series. He must have been entirely aware of the consequences that would result from his publication. In his absence, a warrant for his arrest was issued in Hungary, and he was permanently expelled from the country. Proceedings against him were only halted in 1943, a few years before his death.

The two graphic cycles are accompanied by a display case presentation with materials from the collections of Melton Prior Institute, which makes the evolution of Mihály Biró´s influential socialist graphic style visible in the context of French press graphics and the graphics of the Russian Revolution.

The Red Sower

During his studies at the Guild of Handicraft in Chipping Camden, Mihály Biró (1886&ndash1948) learnt about the traditions of interventionist art, which began with the work of the wood-engraver and writer William James Linton and his student, Walter Crane. Following on from Crane, Biró began to collect graphic motifs from the French revolution, and by placing them in the context of the international socialist movement, he charged them with new iconic power. After emigrating from Hungary, he made illustrations mainly for social democratic campaigns in Austria. In the meantime, he also worked for Der Wahre Jacob, the foremost German-language satirical magazine of the day, which was published in Stuttgart and Berlin by the socialist publishing house J. H. W.-Dietz-Verlag.

J. J. Grandville, &bdquoJe séparerai l'ivraie du bon grain&ldquo (Jésus Ch.), in: La Caricature, Paris, 6 October 1831, lithograph (MePri-Collection)

The Republican campaigns initiated between 1830 and 1835 by the Aubert publishing house, led by the French caricaturist Charles Philipon, are regarded as the universal starting point for the development of socialist graphic art.

Georges Raoul Eugène Pilotelle,Croquis Révolutionnaires: La Commune Arrêtée Par L&rsquoignorance À La Réaction, Paris, 1871, woodcut coloured with stencil ( MePri-Collection)

The French caricaturist Pilotell was one of the most productive art propagandists of the Paris Commune. With the publication of his periodical, La Caricature politique, he was clearly following in the footsteps of Charles Philipon.

Hans Gabriel Jentzsch, Social Democracy and its Enemies, in: Der Wahre Jacob, Stuttgart, 10 April 1900, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Hans Gabriel Jentzsch, Forward! (after Walter Crane), in: Der Wahre Jacob, Stuttgart, 15. März 1900, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Walter Crane, In Memory of the Paris Commune, March 1891, in: Cartoons for the Cause - Designs and Verses for the Socialist and Labour Movement, London 1896 (MePri - Collection)

Walter Crane was, along with William Morris, one of the founding members of the British Socialist League. He produced political drawings for several party newspapers, including Justice and The Commonweal. As his caricatures were republished on the continent and overseas, they soon became popular even outside the United Kingdom.

Mihály Biró , The Red Sower, in: Der Wahre Jacob, Berlin, 24 November 1928 (MePri-Collection)

Vois - sa force&hellip
Biró&rsquos hallmark, the red &ldquoSuperman&rdquo, whom he created in 1912 for the Hungarian Social Democratic Party (MSZDP), continued the pictorial topos of the worker-colossus that had developed during the French Revolution of 1830 and again at the time of the Paris Commune. Biró would later draw numerous variations of the emblematic Hercules figure, writing his name in the history of the evolution of Bolshevist iconography.

Anon., &ldquoVas-t'en donc imbécile, je suis trente trois millions de fois plus fort que toi&ldquo, in: Magasin de Caricatures, Paris 21. August 1830, lithograph (MePri - Collection)

This drawing, published by Philipon, illustrates the enormous greatness of the citoyen compared with King Charles X, the last of the French Bourbon rulers, who was deposed just a few months later by the events of the July Revolution. This print formed the basis of Daumier&rsquos hugely influential lithograph, &ldquoNe vous y frottez pas!! &ndash Liberté de la Presse&rdquo (Do not meddle with it! Freedom of the Press), published in 1834, in which an exaggeratedly large Jacobin printer flexes his muscles, to the terror of the miniature monarchs and clerics assembled around him.

Honoré Daumier, &bdquoNe vous y frottez pas!! &ndash Liberté de la Presse", 1834

John Tenniel, "The Brummagem Frankenstein", in: Punch Magazine, London 8 September 1866 (MePri - Collection)

G. Bar, Actualites - &bdquoLe peuple te comprends! &hellip Vois - sa force&hellip", Paris 1871, setncil coloured wood engraving (MePri - Collection)

Mihály Biró, &bdquoMunkások! Polgárok!&hellip", Budapest, 1912, (postcard version)

Mihály Biró, Népszava, Budapest, 1912, (postcard version)

Vladimir Mayakovsky, GPP # 141 (detail) , Moskow April 1921

A. Strakhov, V.I. Ul´yanov (Lenin), 1924

Explosive caricatures

The libertarian book dealer and publisher, Samuel-Sigismond Schwarz, an émigré from Budapest, founded his legendary Parisian caricature magazine, L&rsquoAssiette au Beurre, in 1901. This weekly magazine was built entirely on the persuasive force of its pictures, while its title suggested nothing less that a radical reorganisation of existing systems of ownership. Schwarz did not restrict his artists with editorial or stylistic requirements, but indeed guaranteed them mass distribution in acceptable printing quality, so he was able to attract some of the boldest and most progressive artists in Paris at the time, including Kees van Dongen, Jules Grandjouan, Juan Gris, Henri-Gustave Jossot, Franti&scaronek Kupka, Théophile Steinlen, Félix Vallotton and Jacques Villon. Despite being banned or censored in many countries, the graphic fireworks and anarchistic fervour of the magazine exerted enormous international influence, not least on the way graphic design developed in revolutionary Russia.

Jules Grandjouan, &bdquoA bas les Monopoles&ldquo, in: L´Assiette au Beurre # 149, Paris, 6. Februar 1904, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Georges d´Ostoya, Les Slaves / Slované, in: L´Assiette au Beurre # 390, Paris, 9. September 1908, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Zymunt Brunner,
Le village de Czernowa est calem. in: L´Assiette au Beurre # 390, Paris, 9. September 1908, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Ludvík Strimpl, Les Slaves / Slované, in: L´Assiette au Beurre # 390, Paris, 9. September 1908, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

The subject of the special edition was the policy of Magyarisation pursued by the Hungarian aristocracy and the marginalisation of the ethnic Slovak population, which came under international scrutiny after the Czernová massacre.

Dimitros Galanis, Le Tzsar Rouge, in: L´Assiette au Beurre # 261, Paris, 4. Februar 1905, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Gabriele Galantara, Vive la Russie, in: L´Assiette au Beurre # 254, Paris, 10. Februar 1906, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Gabriele Galantara, Vive la Russie, in: L´Assiette au Beurre # 254, Paris, 10. Februar 1906, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Anon., Der rote Michel, in : Der Wahre Jacob, Stuttgart, 4. Januar 1910, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

Maximilian Vanselow, &bdquoProsit Neujahr!&ldquo, in : Der Wahre Jacob, Stuttgart, 1. Januar 1912, zincograph (MePri - Collection)

"Turning Points. The Twentieth Century through 1914, 1939, 1989 and 2004&ldquo, curated by Zsolt Petrányi and Vitó Vonits Purcsár, Hungarian National Gallery Budapest, 14 November 2014 until February 15, 2015. Exhibiting artists: Johanna Kandl, Andreas Fogarasi, Josef Dabernig (Austria), Katerina &Scaronedá (Czech Republic), John Timberlake (England), Kristina Norman (Estonia), Société Réaliste (France), Clemens von Wedemeyer, Melton Prior Insitute (Germany), Shy Abady (Israel), Paolo Ventura (Italy), Motoyuki Shitamichi (Japan), Artur zmijewski (Poland), Iosif Kiraly (Romania), Mikyta Svatopluk (Slovakia), Laibach/Neue Slowenische Kunst (Slovenia), Democracia, Javier de Villota (Spain), Istvan Balogh (Switzerland), and the Hungarian artists: Zsolt Asztalos, Zsolt Bodoni, Péter Forgách, Szabolcs Kispál, Adrián Kupcsik, János Sugár and Attila Szucs.

With best thanks for their kind support to Jutta Gehrig (Goethe Institute Hungary) and Zsolt Petrányi (Hungarian National Gallery Budapest)

Watch the video: video 1457025503 (February 2023).

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