Tribute of the Unkians and of a Prince of Syria

Tribute of the Unkians and of a Prince of Syria

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Abdullah of Saudi Arabia

Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود ‎ ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al ʿAzīz Āl Saʿūd, Najdi Arabic pronunciation: [ʢæbˈdɑɫ.ɫɐ ben ˈʢæbdæl ʢæˈziːz ʔæːl sæˈʢuːd] 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was a Saudi politician and military commander who ruled as King of Saudi Arabia from 1 August 2005 until his death. [1]

    (1972–2003 divorced)
  • Jawahir bint Ali Hussein (divorced)
  • Munira Al Otaishan
  • Munira bint Abdullah Al Al Shaykh
  • Tathi bint Mishan al Faisal al Jarba
  • (23 or more other wives)

Abdullah was one of the many sons of King Abdulaziz, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. His mother was Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim of the Al Rashid dynasty, historical rivals of the Al Saud dynasty. Abdullah held important political posts throughout most of his adult life. In 1961 he became mayor of Mecca, his first public office. [2] The following year, he was appointed commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard, a post he was still holding when he became king. He also served as deputy defense minister and was named crown prince when his half-brother Fahd took the throne in 1982. After King Fahd suffered a serious stroke in 1995, Abdullah became the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia until ascending the throne a decade later.

During his reign Abdullah maintained close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom and bought billions of dollars worth of defense equipment from both states. [3] He also gave women the right to vote for municipal councils and to compete in the Olympics. [4] Abdullah maintained the status quo when there were waves of protest in the kingdom during the Arab Spring. [5] In November 2013, a BBC report claimed that, due to the close relations it had with Pakistan, Saudi Arabia could obtain nuclear weapons at will from that country. [6] The King also had a longstanding relationship with Pakistan, and brokered a compromise between ousted Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and General Pervez Musharraf, whom he had requested to be exiled to Saudi Arabia for a 10-year exile, following his ouster in the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état. [7]

The King had three crown princes during his reign, Sultan bin Abdulaziz, Nayef bin Abdulaziz, and Salman bin Abdulaziz, and all three were full brothers of King Fahd. Abdullah outlived Sultan and Nayef. He appointed Sultan as crown prince upon becoming king in August 2005. When Sultan died in October 2011, Nayef was named heir to the throne, but Nayef himself died in June 2012. Abdullah then named Salman bin Abdulaziz as crown prince. According to various reports, the King married up to 30 times and had more than 35 children. [8] [9] [10] [11] He had a personal fortune estimated at US$18 billion, making him the third-wealthiest head of state in the world. [12] He died on 23 January 2015, at the age of 90, [13] three weeks after being hospitalized for pneumonia, and was succeeded by his half-brother Salman. [14]

American Involvement in Wars From Colonial Times to the Present

America has been involved in wars large and small since before the founding of the nation. The first such war, sometimes called Metacom’s Rebellion or King Philip's War, lasted 14 months and destroyed 14 towns.   The war, tiny by today's standards, ended when Metacom (the Pokunoket chief called "King Philip" by the English), was beheaded.

The most recent war, America's engagement in Afghanistan, is the most protracted war in U.S. history. A response to devastating coordinated terrorist attacks on American soil on Sept. 11, 2001, this war began the following month when the U.S. invaded Afghanistan in search of Taliban forces and members of al-Qaeda. U.S. troops remain there to this day.

Wars over the years have changed dramatically, and American involvement in them has varied as well. For example, many of the earliest American wars were fought on American soil. Twentieth-century wars such as World Wars I and II, by contrast, were fought overseas few Americans on the homefront saw any type of direct engagement during these. While the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II and the attack on the World Trade Center in 2001 resulted in thousands of American deaths, the most recent war fought on American soil was the Civil War, which ended in 1865.

History of controversial statements

However, some of Philip's comments have landed him in trouble, with the prince establishing a reputation over the years for blunt, controversial and sometimes offensive statements. In particular, some of his comments about Indigenous people and ethnic minorities were seen as racist, not funny.

For example, on a 2002 visit to Australia with the Queen, Philip infamously asked a group of Aboriginal people if "you still throw spears at each other."

In 1995, he insulted the locals on a visit to Scotland by saying to a Scottish driving instructor: "How do you keep the natives off the booze long enough to pass the test?"

Indeed, Buckingham Palace felt compelled to issue an apology after another gaffe in 1999, when Philip, while touring a factory in Scotland, remarked that a fuse box looked so crude "as though it was put in by an Indian."

It was unclear whether he was referring to people from India or Indigenous people although he later explained the comment by saying, "I meant to say cowboys. I just got my cowboys and Indians mixed up."

"The Duke of Edinburgh regrets any offence which may have been caused by remarks he is reported as making earlier today," its statement said. "With hindsight, he accepts that what were intended as lighthearted comments were inappropriate."

WATCH | Royal Family lands in present-day Iqaluit in 1970:

Lasting effects

“The shadow of native enslavement in New England extends into the 18th century and beyond,” Fisher said. “There are records of people petitioning for freedom in the 1740s who were the descendants of Native Americans first enslaved during King Philip’s War.”

In the study, he wrote, “Small legal loopholes and dishonest practices on the ground ensured that, in many cases, limited-term service turned into lifelong and even heritable slavery.” In 1676, Connecticut officials decreed that a native slave’s term of service could be lengthened but not shortened.

A law passed the same year by the Rhode Island General Assembly seemed on the surface to outlaw Indian slavery, but, Fisher noted, in practice that and other laws ensured that Native surrenderers were “disposed of” for the benefit of the colony, with various terms of servitude. For Native Americans five years of age or younger, their servitude lasted until they were 30 years old.

These enslavement practices permanently disrupted the “lives, livelihoods and kinship networks of thousands of Indians,” Fisher wrote, and sometimes slavery was simply given another name.

In 1721, 45 years after the end of King Philip’s War, the Connecticut General Assembly took up the question of second-generation Native American child slaves. The Native American children who had been placed as servants in English households after the war had grown up and had children of their own. What should be done with them? Fisher wrote that while leaders did not approve of enslaving them, they also did not want to set them free, so that generation of children also became indentured servants.

Native Americans sold overseas occasionally made it back to the United States, Fisher wrote. Others died or disappeared into a wider slave market and labor force, or became established in the locations where they were sent, like the modern-day community of individuals in Bermuda who claim New England Indian descent.

Blackfoot Indians Tribe History

All the Blackfoot tribe, which included all four tribes had a similar culture, a common language, and treaties. They even joined together for various ceremonial rituals and could marry another from any of the four tribes.

Traditions that have been passed down from generation to generation is that the first tribe to hunt buffalo what were known as drives, but smaller games such as deer were captured in snares. Even though the Blackfoot tribe could have easily eaten fish it was only used when other types of meat were not plentiful.

Native American Blackfoot divided into bands during the winter months close by forests with around 20 housing units that hold up to 200 people. Everyone one of the bands had their own Chief. The reason for this is that they might need to defend their homes against attacks but with only between 100 to 200 individuals in each band, they could move quickly.

Blackfoot Indian history shows that during the springtime the buffalo moved to grasslands, the tribe stayed in place until they were sure winter was completely over before moving and living in tribal camps instead of small bands. During this time, the black foot native American began hunting buffalo and had their ceremonial rituals. During around the middle of summer, all Blackfeet Indians would join together for the main ceremony known as the Sun Dance. Once the ceremony began, warriors were based on their brave deeds and actions. After this important ceremony, the tribes were divided again to hunt buffalo.

Blackfoot Tribe Location

The Blackfoot Indians Tribe were mainly in what we know as the Great Lakes Region. The Cree Indians sworn enemies of the Blackfoot pushed the tribe westward, which made them the first tribe to move westward. As they moved westward they began to call the northern plains area home from the Saskatchewan all the way to the Rocky Mountains home.

Blackfoot Tribe Culture

Blackfoot Indians elected their leader and family was very important. During traveling, there were around 25 individuals in the band which would choose their leader. While the tribe was at peace, a peace Chief would be chosen that would aid in improving relationships with other tribes. On the other hand, a war chief was not elected but had to be earned via their own acts of bravery.

Blackfoot Societies

The tribe had diverse societies such as if young men wanted to be in a certain society, he had to go on a vision quest that started with a cleansing of the spirit in what was called a sweat lodge. The idea was that the young brave would see a vision that would show his future.

Warriors also had a cleansing of the spirit prior to a battle, paint their bodies and even their horses for the war at hand.

The religious society was responsible for the protection of items that Blackfeet held sacred as well as be in charge of the various religious ceremonies. Among their duties were to bless warriors prior to war/

The society of women was very important to the tribe as well as they created quill-work on all clothing as well as created the ceremonial shield, prepared the cloth and skins to create their clothing and cared for the children while passing down the ways of the tribe, among other duties.

As mentioned above, the family was very important to the Blackfoot tribe in which a male could choose his bride, but she was given the option to accept or not. The Indian brave had to show her father that he was a good mate by impressing the father, at which time both the male and female traded gifts of clothing and horses which finished the marriage. In the majority of cases, the couple lived in their own tipi or in other cases, lived with the husband’s family. The Blackfoot were allowed more than one bride, but usually only had one wife.

Blackfoot Clothing

The clothing the Blackfeet Indians were created from tanned or softened deer and antelope hides. The women of the tribe decorated the clothing for all tribe members. The majority of cases, the males did not wear shirts but wore a buffalo robe across their shoulders with long leggings that reached their hips, a loincloth along with a belt.

Females were dresses that were usually created from deerskin along with bracelets and earrings from seashells that they received in trades from other tribes.

Famous Blackfoot Indians

There were many different famous Blackfoot Indians which included Elouise Cobell, Byron Chief-Moon, Crowfoot, Old Sun, Batista-Mahkan, A-ca-00-Maho-ca-ye, Red Crow, Peenaquim, Calf Shirt, Stu-mick-o-súcks, Faye HeavyShield, Joe Hipp, Stephen Graham Jones, Rickey Medlocke, Shorty Medlocke, Ivan Naranjo, Earl Old Person, Jerry Potts, Steve Reeves, Misty Upham, James Welch, Thomas A. Thompson, The Honourable Eugene Creighton, and Gyasi Ross.

Ellis Island Museum of Immigration

Passage of the Immigrant Quota Act of 1921 and the National Origins Act of 1924, which limited the number and nationality of immigrants allowed into the United States, effectively ended the era of mass immigration into New York.ਊt this point, the smaller number of immigrants began to be processed on their arriving ships, with Ellis Island serving primarily as a temporary detainment center.

From 1925 to the closing of Ellis Island in 1954, only 2.3 million immigrants passed through the New York City port–which was still more than half of all those entering the United States.

Ellis Island opened to the public in 1976. Today, visitors can tour the Ellis Island Museum of Immigration in the restored Main Arrivals Hall and trace their ancestors through millions of immigrant arrival records made available to the public in 2001.

In this way, Ellis Island remains a central destination for millions of Americans seeking a glimpse into the history of their country, and in many cases, into their own family’s story.

Priceless racism

BBC’s transparent attempt at whitewashing notwithstanding, Prince Philip’s racism is actually quite priceless because it comes so naturally to him. He is not faking it. He is not trying to offend anyone. He is offensive. This is he. This is who he is – and the long panoply of his racist, sexist, elitist, misogynistic, class-privileged and unhinged prejudices is a mobile museum of European bigotry on display.

The Duke of Edinburgh has done the world an extraordinary service by being who he is, by staging generous servings of his bigoted disposition and he is retiring happily with having catalogued all or at least most of his priceless inventory for posterity to read and learn.

Our dearly beloved Duke of Edinburgh is blissfully old. He has lived a long, rich, and fulfilling life – and may he live the rest of his racist days with the dignity and poise that he has denied others. His xenophobic bigotry is pure, his sense of class entitlement undiluted, unencumbered, uncensored, liberated from any inkling of bourgeois inhibitions. He does not mean to be offensive. He just is. He is a walking embodiment of every layered lava of European racism summed up inside one royal head.

Today people of the privileged class have learned how to camouflage their racism in varied codes and convoluted bourgeois euphemism. The kind of bigotry that Prince Philip exudes and stages is now considered rude and vulgar, old-fashioned and outmoded, presumed classed and pointed at the lower social strata. The precious advantage of Prince Philip is that he is a royal from the heart of British (and European) aristocracy. He tells it as he sees it fit.

Prince Philip the Duke of Edinburgh arrives at Cambridge University for an honorary doctorates ceremony in 1994 [Reuters]

The Prince is the repository of all the colonial past and all the class privileges of the present. His racist remarks should not be whitewashed or camouflaged. They need to be properly, accurately, and verbatim catalogued in the British Library and made available to future generations of scholars and critical thinkers, anthropologists of the racist foregrounding of European imperialism for careful and close analysis. They are the insignia of an entire semiology of colonial racism in full-blown aristocratic diction. From the rampant racism now dominant in Israel to pernicious xenophobia evident in Trump’s America, it’s all there: rooted in these unhinged expletives in polite, aristocratic British English.

Expressions of Prince Philip’s racism are not “gaffes” as the BBC and other British outlets embarrassed by their vulgarity brand them – though one can see why the BBC is rushing to term them as such and brush them quickly under the proverbial carpet. For the world at large, however, at the receiving end of British and European racist colonialism, these “gaffes” are in fact priceless relics of an age now deeply camouflaged under lovely-looking and liberal euphemisms. We as a result need to treat them as archaeologists treat any other relic and fragment they find. Based on such remains, they reconstruct bygone ages and the forgotten truths they reveal and conceal at one and the same time.

10 Interesting Facts about Maldives you must Know

One of the most popular holiday destinations in the world, Maldives is a wonderful tropical island that boasts of white sandy beaches, azure sea waters and exotic, colorful coral reefs. Private beach huts are the best accommodation option at this tropical paradise lying amid the Indian Ocean. This wonderland island has several interesting realities that one may not know. Here are 10 interesting facts about Maldives that you must know:

World’s First Underwater Cabinet Meeting was Held Here

For an island country like Maldives, drastic climate change and rising level of oceans is a major threat. A number of islands have already been cleared because of the rising waters in the ocean and their interference in fresh water resources. For drawing attention towards the same, Mohamed Nasheed, The President, transferred the cabinet meeting of October 2009 right to the ocean’s bottom.

President along with his 13 government officials adorned scuba gears and placed themselves on the desks that were sunk at the sea bottom in order to increase attentiveness about the threats that the island chains are facing.

Another point was raising awareness about sustainability projects he was thinking about in order to reduce carbon footprints in the whole country. These projects were on sustainable tourism, biodegradable resorts along with garnering all the energy sources available on the islands, including solar power, water as well as wind.

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It is an Island that was Formed by an Exiled Indian Prince

From the time the history of Maldives has been chronicled, this island country has always been of a great importance because of its apt placement along some trade routes. The people who first colonized the island, came here from India only. Though the exact date is not known, but the tentative date was sometime before 269 BC.

If legends are to be believed, at that time there was no government. Only a peaceful community who worshiped Sun and Water, was living there. It is said that the first real kingdom here was founded by Sri Soorudasaruna Adeettiya, the son of a ruler of Kalinga, a kingdom in India. The king was extremely angry from his son and had sent him away to Maldives, then called Dheeva Maari. The prince established Adeetta Dynasty in Maldives. Also called the Solar Dynasty, its time came to an end after the wedding of the queen of this dynasty with a prince of Lunar Dynasty of Kalinga.

As far as the early days of history of Maldives is concerned, nothing is much clear. Information about the same poured in from later on. Copper plates belonging to a princess were lost from her home island in 1100s but it is later probably were founded by a scholar in the 14 th century, who later translated but then buried them back in the sand, never to be found again.

This Island Comprises of More Than 1190 Coral Islands in its 26 Prime Atolls

Maldives has more than 1190 low-lying coral islands that are gathered into 26 atolls, which can be seen in 200 inhabited islands of Maldives along with 80 islands that have tourist resorts. Archipelago enjoy a wonderful location along and across the main sea lines of the Indian Ocean. Maldives’ atolls are actually a part of a larger structure called the Laccadives-Chagos Ridge, expanding over 2000 km. 99% of Maldives is water.

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It is The Lowest and Flattest Nation in The World

The ground level of Maldives Island on an average is at 1.5 meters, that is 4 feet 11 inches, and the highest point is at a particular spot in the Villingili Island, that is at 2.3 meters- 7 feet 7 inches, which is the lowest on the earth. As the nation is at the lowest level, it always has to worry about the chances of it sinking, especially because of the drastic changes in the climate that are happening continuously.

Alcohol is Available Only in Resorts and Hotels

Maldives is an Islamic country, the visiting tourists are also expected to follow as well as respect their traditions while visiting it. Alcohol can be consumed only in hotels and resorts as it is prohibited everywhere else. Taking it away from the premises of the resort is also not allowed.

Importing alcohol, pork as well as pork products is illegal as per Muslim beliefs. In The Ramadan month, even tourists are expected to stick to Muslim customs, such as shunning drinking, smoking and eating during the day hours. Some restaurants that are away from main roads may serve the tourists.

Though there is no public reverence for other faiths but the tourists can follow their beliefs in private. Nudity and topless sunbathing is not allowed in Maldives, even if you are on the private beach of your resort.

World’s Smallest Muslim Country

Maldives is not only the smallest country in Asia but it also the world’s smallest Muslim country that is popular for its religious intolerance. Written in the year 1997, The Maldives Constitution states that that its citizens must be Muslim, particularly and clearly forbidding following of any other religion.

One of the Safest Holiday Destinations in the World

Maldives is popular for being one of the safest holiday destinations in the world. Even the very isolated resorts are extremely safe.

In Maldives, Friday and Saturday mean Weekend unlike any other Nation

While in most of the countries on the globe, weekend means Saturday and Sunday, it is not so in Maldives. Weekend here is Friday and Saturday.

Literacy in Maldivian Adults is 98 Percent

Maldives is one country that can brag about having 98 percent literacy among its adults. This comes as a matter of pride as in the year 1978, it was just 70 percent. Around 200 islands on Maldives are inhabited, thus making one education program was a difficult thing for the government. It is believed that 35 percent of Maldives residents are under the age of 18 years and thus education plays an important role in being successful in the future.

UNICEF helped Maldives in the making a unified education over the year from 1978. Teacher Resource Centers have been constructed that made use of modern technology, specifically internet for the purpose of long-distance teaching among the different island. This also helped in the creation of an education program that promoted education for not only children but also for caregivers as well as parents who play an important role in a child’s life.

Its consequence was that 100% children enrolled in primary schools. That is not all. Even the graduation rate was 99 percent. As per the surveys by the US Department of Education, the rate of literacy in the US has not changes in the span of 10 years, and the illiteracy in the adult population is 14 percent.

Wonderful Underwater Life

In comparison to the United States, whale watching in Maldives is going to be a thrilling experience as you are going to spot as many as 1000-1500 dolphins and whales. During anytime of the year, the coral reefs of Maldives are inhabited by 10-12 species of dolphins and whales

Tourists can spot real killer whales, false killer whales, dwarf sperm whales, bottlenose dolphins, striped and spotted dolphins as well as pilot whales. There can be as many as 200 dolphins in one school of dolphins. Maldives is also popular all around world as one of the best place to spot Whale Shark, the largest fish in the world, ranging from18 to 32 feet.

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Geetika Handa

Geetika Handa is a travel writer who has an interest in sharing her experiences with all. She provides a detailed account of any travel topic she chooses to write on. You can get detailed information and tips about choosing the right kind of holiday packages in the country from her write-ups.

The Portuguese in Sri Lanka (1505–1658)

By about 1500 trade in the Indian Ocean was dominated by Arab, Indian, Malay, and Chinese merchants, who together used various seafaring craft to transport a spectrum of cargo, from spices to elephants. In the early 16th century a new force, in the form of Portuguese ships with mounted guns, arrived in the ocean. These vessels, with their firepower and capacity for high speeds, helped implement a policy of control that began to undermine the region’s long-standing, relatively open trade competition.

In 1505 a Portuguese fleet commanded by Lourenço de Almeida was blown into Colombo by adverse winds. Almeida received a friendly audience from the king of Kotte, Vira Parakrama Bahu, and was favourably impressed with the commercial and strategic value of the island. The Portuguese soon returned and established a regular and formal contact with Kotte. In 1518 they were permitted to build a fort at Colombo and were given trading concessions.

In 1521 three sons of Vijayabahu, the reigning king of Kotte, put their father to death and partitioned the kingdom among themselves. The eldest of the brothers, Bhuvanaika Bahu, ruled at Kotte, and the two others set up independent kingdoms at Sitawake and Rayigama. Mayadunne, the king of Sitawake, was an ambitious and able ruler who sought to expand his frontiers at the expense of his brother at Kotte. Bhuvanaika Bahu could not resist the temptation of seeking Portuguese assistance, and the Portuguese were eager to help him. The more he was pressed by Mayadunne, the greater was his reliance on Portuguese reinforcement. Bhuvanaika Bahu defended his kingdom against Mayadunne, who in turn allied himself with an inveterate enemy of the Europeans, the zamorin (member of the Zamorin dynasty) of Kozhikode (also known as Calicut, in southwestern India).

Bhuvanaika Bahu was succeeded by his grandson Prince Dharmapala, who was even more dependent on Portuguese support. An agreement between Bhuvanaika Bahu and the king of Portugal in 1543 had guaranteed the protection of the prince on the throne and the defense of the kingdom in return the Portuguese were to be confirmed in all their privileges and were to receive a tribute of cinnamon. The prince was educated by members of the Franciscan order of the Roman Catholic Church in 1556 or 1557, when his conversion to Christianity was announced, he became easily controlled by the Portuguese. Dharmapala’s conversion undermined the Kotte dynasty in the eyes of the people. Mayadunne’s wars of aggression were now transformed into a struggle against Portuguese influence and interests in the island, and he annexed a large part of the Kotte kingdom. After Mayadunne’s death, his son Rajasinha continued these wars successfully on land, though, like his father, he had no way of combating Portuguese sea power.

At the death of Rajasinha in 1593, the Sitawake kingdom disintegrated for want of a strong successor. The Portuguese captured much of the land of the Kotte royal lineage and emerged as a strong power on the island. In 1580 Dharmapala had been persuaded to deed his kingdom to the Portuguese, and when he died in 1597 they took formal possession of it. Meanwhile, a Portuguese expedition to Jaffna in 1560 had no lasting success. A second invasion of 1591, undertaken at the instigation of Christian missionaries, succeeded in installing a Portuguese protégé. Continued unrest and succession disputes prompted the Portuguese to undertake a third expedition, and the kingdom of Jaffna was annexed in 1619.

The Portuguese now controlled a considerable part of the island, except the Central Highlands and eastern coast, where an able Sinhalese nobleman, Vimala Dharma Surya, had established himself and consolidated his authority. The Portuguese were eager to establish hegemony over the entire island, and their attempts to do so led to protracted warfare. The Portuguese expanded to the lower reaches of the Central Highlands and annexed the east coast ports of Trincomalee and Batticaloa.

Although Portuguese possessions in Sri Lanka became a part of the Portuguese Estado da India (State of India), the administrative structure of the Kotte kingdom was retained. The island was divided into four dissavanis, or provinces, each headed by a dissava. Other territorial subdivisions also were retained. Portuguese held the highest offices, though local officials came from the Sinhalese nobility loyal to the Portuguese.

The Sinhalese system of service tenure was maintained, and it was used extensively to secure the essential produce of the land, such as cinnamon and elephants. The caste system remained intact, and all obligations that had been due to the sovereign now accrued to the Portuguese state. The payment in land to officials also was continued and was extended to Portuguese officials as well.

The Portuguese generally lacked a proper understanding of traditional Sinhalese social and economic structure, and excessive demands put upon it led to hardship and popular hostility. Cinnamon and elephants became articles of Portuguese monopoly they provided good profits, as did the trade in pepper and betel nuts (areca nuts). Portuguese officials compiled a tombo, or land register, to provide a detailed statement of landholding, crops grown, tax obligations, and nature of ownership.

The period of Portuguese influence was marked by intense Roman Catholic missionary activity. Franciscans established centres in the country from 1543 onward. Jesuits were active in the north. Toward the end of the century, Dominicans and Augustinians arrived. With the conversion of Dharmapala, many members of the Sinhalese nobility followed suit. Dharmapala endowed missionary orders lavishly, often from the properties of Buddhist and Hindu temples. After the Portuguese secured control of Sri Lanka, they used their extensive powers of patronage and preference in appointments to promote Christianity. Members of the landed aristocracy embraced Christianity and took Portuguese surnames at baptism. Many coastal communities underwent mass conversion, particularly Jaffna, Mannar, and the fishing communities north of Colombo. Catholic churches with schools attached to them served Catholic communities all over the country. The Portuguese language spread extensively, and the upper classes quickly gained proficiency in it.

Watch the video: Video tribute to SAA forces (September 2022).


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