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14 November 1944

14 November 1944


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14 November 1944

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Western Front

French 1st Army begins an offensive towards the Belfort Gap



14 November 1944 - History

LST - 850 - 900

LST - 850 was laid down on 15 August 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 3 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Mildred M. T. Honig and commissioned on 27 November 1944, Lt. Perry B. Hazard in command. During World War II, LST-850 was assigned to the AsiaticPacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, the ship performed occupation duty in the Far East until early October 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 17 May 1946 and transferred to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Juniata County (LST-850) (q.v.) after a county in Pennsylvania. Juniata County was recommended for use as a target for destruction on 20 October 1958 and was struck from the Navy list on 1 November that same year. LST-850 earned one battle star for World War 11 service.

LST - 851 was laid down on 10 August 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 8 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Gertrude B. Van Trigt and commissioned on 30 November 1944, Lt. Leo T. Tyburski in command, During World War II, LST-851 was assigned to the Asiatic_ Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May 1945. Following the war, the ship performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-October 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 24 April 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 8 May that same year. On 30 September 1946, LST- 851 was sold to the Northwest Merchandising Service, Seattle, Wash. LST-851 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 852 was redesignated ARL-23 and named Satyr (q.v.) on 14 August 1944.

LST - 853 was laid down on 30 August 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 17 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Ellen Scott DeCoursey and commissioned on 11 December 1944, Lt. Charles B. Salsbury in command. During World War II, LST-853 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May and June 1945. Following the war, the ship performed occupation duty in the Far East until early December 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 24 July 1946 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. On I July 1955, she was redesignated Kane County (LST-853) (q.v.) after counties in Illinois and Utah. Kane County was transferred to the Republic of Korea Navy on 22 December 1958 where she served as Sit Yong (LST-813). LST-853 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 854 was laid down on 30 August 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 20 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. M. A. Menkol and commissioned on 14 December 1944, Lt. E. J. Robeson in command. During World War 11, LST-854 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, the ship performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early March 1949. She was decommissioned on 21 October 1949 and was recommissioned on 20 November 1950 and performed extensive service during the Korean War. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Kemper County (LST-854) (q.v.) after a county in Mississippi. Continuing operations with the Pacific Fleet following the war, Kemper County participated in the support of the Republic of Vietnam commencing in 1965 until she was decommissioned once again on 28 May 1969. LST-854 earned one battle star for World War If service, five for the Korean War, and one award of the Navy Unit Commendation and five battle stars for the Vietnam War.

LST - 855 was laid down on 6 September 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 27 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Jeanne H. Hoerner and commissioned on 21 December 1944, Lt. (jg.) Thomas P. Kierl in command. Following World War II, LST-855 performed occu pation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid- June 1949. The ship was decommissioned on 15 February 1950. On 3 November 1950, LST-855 was recommissioned and performed extensive service during the Korean War. On I July 1955, she was redesignated Kent County (LST-855) (q.v.) after counties in Delaware, Maryland, Michigan, Rhode Island, and Texas. Following post-Korean operations with the Pacific Fleet, Kent County was again decommissioned on 22 January 1958 and destroyed as a target on 19 March that same year. She was struck from the Navy list on 19 March 1958. LST-855 earned six battle stars for the Korean War.

LST - 856 was laid down on 16 September 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 1 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Patricia Wiegand and commissioned on 23 December 1944, Lt. Arthur E. Fisher in command. During World War If, LST-856 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until midFebruary 1946. The tank landing ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 29 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. On 5 May 1948, she was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., and subsequently scrapped. LST-856 received one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 857 was laid down on 19 September 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 6 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Beatrice S. Major and commissioned on 29 December 1944, Lt. Roy C. Parlier in command. During World War II, LST-857 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1940. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid- December 1945. After postwar operations with the Pacific Fleet, LST-857 performed extensive service during the Korean War. On 1 July 1955, the ship was redesignated King County (LST-857) (q.v.) after counties in Texas and Washington. In October 1957, she began conversion to an experimental guided missile test ship and was reclassified AG-157 on 17 May 1958. Decommissioned on 8 July 1960, King County was sold to Zidell Explorations, Inc., Portland, Oreg., on 25 April 1961. LST-857 received one battle star for World War II service and seven battle stars for Korean service.

LST - 858 was redesignated ARL-26 and named Stentor (q.v.) on 14 August 1944.

LST - 859 was laid down on 26 September 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 15 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Elsie M. Marcum and commissioned on 6 January 1945, Lt. Daniel D. Kipnis in command. During World War II, LST-859 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. After the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early December 1945. Following postwar operations with the Pacific Fleet, LST-859 saw extensive service during the Korean War. On 1 July 1955, the ship was redesignated Lafayette County (LST-859) (q.v.) after counties in Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, and Wisconsin: and a parish in Louisiana. Decommssioned on 15 August 1958, Lafayette County was transferred to the Republic of China Navy where she served as Chung Cheng (LST-224). LST-859 received one battle star for World War II service and six battle stars for Korean service.

LST - 860 was laid down on 23 September 1944 at Seneca, Ill., by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 19 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Marjorie C. Lindahl and commissioned on 13 January 1945. LST-860 conducted no combat operations during World War II. She was decommissioned on I June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. On 19 March 1948, the tank landing ship was sold to the Mechanical Equipment Export Co. for operation.

LST - 861 was laid down on 18 September 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Ma chine Co. launched on 4 November 1944 sponsored by Miss Frances K. Gadjen and commissioned on 30 November 1944. During World War II, LST-861 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May and June 1945. Following the war, LST-861 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid- March 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 10 March 1947 and struck from the Navy list on 4 April that same year. On 10 June 1948, the ship was sold to Kaiser Co., Inc., Seattle, Wash., and subsequently scrapped. LST-861 received one battle star for World War II service.

LST-862 was laid down on 26 September 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. launched on 9 November 1944 sponsored by Miss Angela Tolkacz and commissioned on 4 December 1944, Lt. R. N. Moffett, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-862 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-April 1946. The tank landing ship was decommissioned in early 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Administration for disposal on 10 October 1947. LST-862 received one battle star for World War II service.

LST-863 was laid down on 11 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. launched on 14 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Eva L. Nolan and commissioned on 9 December 1944. During World War II, LST-863 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June. 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-January 1946. The ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 19 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 13 May 1948, she was sold to Hughes Bros., Inc., and subsequently scrapped. LST-863 received one battle star for World War II service.

LST-864 was laid down on 3 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. launched on 18 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Viola J. Wathen and commissioned on 13 December 1944. During World War II, LST-864 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-January 1947. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 1 May 1947 and struck from the Navy list on 22 May that same year. On 26 June 1948, the ship was sold to Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Wash., and subsequently scrapped. LST-864 received one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 865 was laid down on 19 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. launched on 22 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Monetta S. Brendel and commissioned on 16 December 1944. Following the war, LST-865 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-December 1947. She was decommissioned on 30 December 1947 and transferred to the Philippine Navy that same day where she served as Albay (LT-39). The ship was struck from the Navy list on 22 January 1948.

LST - 866 was laid down on 14 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. launched on 27 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Nellie Meehan and commissioned on 21 December 1944. During World War II, LST-866 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early April 1946. The ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 27 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 25 September 1947, she was sold to Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Wash., and subsequently scrapped. LST-866 received one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 867 was laid down on 23 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. launched on 1 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Kathryn V. Wise and commissioned on 18 December 1944, Ens. V. Lopresti in command. Following World War II, LST-867 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early March 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 2 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 25 September 1947, the ship was sold to Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Wash., and subsequently scrapped.

LST - 868 was laid down on 31 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co. launched on 6 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Beatrice C. Hanley and commissioned on 30 December 1944. During World War II, LST-868 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-April 1946. LST-868 returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 9 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 10 June 1947. On 19 December 1947, the ship was sold to the Northern Metals Co., Philadelphia, Pa., for scrapping. LST-868 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 869 was laid down on 27 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co. launched on 11 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Janie G. Ray and commissioned on 6 January 1945, Lt. (jg.) E. J. Malloy in command. Following World War II, LST-869 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 31 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 26 December 1947, the ship was sold to Pablo N. Ferrari & Co. for operation.

LST - 870 was laid down on 4 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co. launched on 15 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Opal M. Burke and commissioned on 10 January 1945. Following World War II, LST-870 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early February 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned in June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 29 August 1947, the ship was sold to Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Wash., for scrapping. LST-87-1 LST-871 was laid down on 9 November 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co. launched on 20 December 1944 and commissioned on 18 January 1945. LST-871 was redesignated LSTH-871 on 15 September 1945. Following World War II, LSTH-871 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early May 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 4 October 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 13 November that same year. On 30 June 1948, the ship was sold to the Humble Oil & Refining Co., Houston, Tex., for operation.

LST - 872 was laid down on 18 November 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co. launched on 28 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Carrie 1. Morris and commissioned on 22 January 1945. LST-872 performed no combat service with the United States Navy and was decommissioned on 8 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 15 August that same year. On 27 October 1947, she was sold to the Northwest Merchandising Service for operation.

LST - 873 was laid down on 14 November 1944 at Jeffersonville, Ind., by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co. launched on 3 January 1945 sponsored by Miss Florence A. Babb and commissioned on 27 January 1945, Lt. Ned S. Holley in command. Following World War II, LST-873 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-February 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 8 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 25 September that same year. On 20 May 1948, the ship was sold to Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash., for scrapping.

LST - 874 was laid down on 16 October 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 25 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Ernest B. Rainey and commissioned on 18 December 1944. During World War 11, LST-874 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early January 1946. LST-874 returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 29 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. On 8 June 1948, the ship was sold to Donald P. Loker for operation. LST-874 earned one battle star for World War 11 service.

LST - 875 was laid down on 18 October 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co.launched on 29 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Karl R. Zimmermann and commissioned on 22 December 1944, Lt. R. E. Euliss in command. During World War II, LST-875 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May and June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-September 1945. She was decommissioned on 22 April 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 July that same year. On 2 July 1948, the ship was transferred to the Philippine Navy where she served as Misamis Oriental (LT-40). LST-875 earned one battle star for World War 11 service.

LST - 876 was laid down on 21 October 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 2 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. John S. Shochmake and commissioned on 27 December 1944, Lt. John V. Quillan, Jr., USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-876 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May and June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 28 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 4 November 1947, the ship was sold to W. A. Talbot for scrapping. LST-876 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 877 was laid down on 25 October 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 6 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. E. L. Hardeman and commissioned on I January 1945, Lt. George Lee Smith in command. During World War 11, LST-877 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early January 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on I May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. On 15 January 1948, the ship was sold to the California Co. for operation. LST-877 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 878 was laid down on 30 October 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 9 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Richard L. Moorehead and commissioned on 3 January 1945, Lt. Laurence Lattomus, USNR, in command. Following the war, LST-878 performed occupation duty in the Far East until late November 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 3 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 July that same year. On 5 November 1947, the tank landing ship was sold to Bosey, Philippines.

LST-879 was laid down on 2 November 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 13 December 1944 launched by Mrs. Rella G. Heath and commissioned on 5 January 1945. During World War II, LST-879 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-November 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 26 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 25 September that same year. On 17 May 1948, the ship was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping. LST-879 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-880 was laid down on 6 November 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 16 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. L. H. Quigley and commissioned on 9 January 1945, Lt. (jg.) James T. Connolly in command. Following World War II, LST-880 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early December 1945. She was decommissioned on I October 1946 and assigned to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet at Green Cove Springs, Fla. Recommissioned on 20 August 1951, LST-880 served with the Atlantic Fleet, including occupation duty in Europe, from June through November 1952. On 1 July 1955, the ship was redesignated Lake County (LST-880) (q.v.) after counties in 12 states. She was decommissioned on 25 November 1958. Declared unfit for further service, Lake County was used as a target ship for destruction.

LST-881 was laid down on 10 November 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 20 December 1944 sponsored by Miss Pat Shobe and commissioned on 15 January 1945. Following World War II, LST-881 performed occupation duty in the Far East until late September 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 14 February 1947 and struck from the Navy list on 5 March that same year. On 24 November 1947, the ship was sold to E. G. Fontes & Co. for operation.

LST-882 was laid down on 14 November 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 23 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. John R. Brown and commissioned on 18 January 1945. Following World War II, LST-882 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early March 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 5 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 4 November 1947, the ship was sold to the Moore Drydock Co., Oakland, Calif., for scrapping.

LST - 883 was laid down on 16 November 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 30 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. L. D. McBride and commissioned on 23 January 1945, Lt. Winfield H. Cook in command. During World War II, LST-883 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. She was decommissioned on 20 April 1946 and transferred to the Army. Recommissioned on 1 July 1950, LST-883 performed extensive service during the Korean War. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated La Moure County (LST-883) (q.v.) after a county in North Dakota. Operating with the Pacific Fleet after the war, La Moure County was decommissioned again on 7 December 1959. Struck from the Navy list on 1 July 1960, the ship was sold to Zidell Explorations Corp., Portland, Oreg., on 30 November 1960. LST-883 earned one battle star for World War II service and seven battle stars for the Korean War.

LST - 884 was laid down on 23 July 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 30 September 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Michael Durkin and commissioned on 10 October 1944. During World War II, LST-884 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in February 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April 1945. She was decommissioned on 16 February 1946. Due to extensive damage resulting from a kamikaze attack on 1 April 1945, LST-884's hulk was sunk on 6 May 1946. The ship was struck from the Navy list on 21 May 1946. LST-884 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 885 was laid down on 13 August 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 23 September 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Alvin H. Tutt and commissioned on 26 October 1944. During World War II, LST-885 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in March and April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until late November 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 29 April 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. On 16 December 1947, the ship was sold to the Tex-O-Kan Flour Mills Co., Dallas, Tex., for operation. LST-885 earned one battle star for World War 11 service.

LST - 886 was laid down on 20 August 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 30 September 1944 sponsored by Mrs. C. S. Hamilton and commissioned on 2 November 1944. During World War II, LST-886 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in March 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid- November 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 10 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 June that same year. On 20 May 1948, the ship was sold to Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash., for scrapping. LST-886 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST-887 was laid down on 27 August 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 7 October 1944 sponsored by Mrs. F. J. Conroy and commissioned on 7 November 1944, Lt. Loring 0. Chandler, USCGR, in command. During World War II, LST-887 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until late October 1945. The ship was decommissioned on 23 July 1946 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Recommissioned on 3 November 1950, LST-887 performed extensive service during the Korean War and with the Pacific Fleet thereafter. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Lawrence County (LST-887) (q.v.) after counties in 11 states of the United States. Decommissioned again on 22 March 1960, Lawrence County was struck from the Navy list on 1 November 1960 and sold to the Indonesian Navy where she served as Tandjung Nusanixe (LST-1). LST-887 earned one battle star for World War II service and three for the Korean War.

LST-888 was laid down on 11 August 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 14 October 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Richard Connell and commissioned on 13 November 1944, Lt. Walter V. Harlin in command. During World War II, LST-888 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from March through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early April 1946. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 2 September and assigned to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet at Green Cove Springs, Fla. On 1 July 1955, LST-888 was redesignated Lee County (LST-888) (q.v.) after counties in 12 states of the United States. Struck from the Navy list on 21 September 1960, the ship was sold to Gulf Tampa Drydock, Inc., Tampa, Fla., on 18 April 1961 for scrapping. LST-888 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-889 was laid down on 3 September 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 14 October 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Sylvester Hohl and commissioned on 18 November 1944, Lt. Lon Hocker, Jr., USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-889 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early December 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 28 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 July that same year. On 13 February 1948, the ship was sold to Bosey, Philippines. LST-889 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST-890 was laid down on 10 September 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 21 October 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Andrew Hetherington and commissioned on 24 November 1944. During World War II, LST-890 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-October 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 24 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 3 July that same year. On 10 June 1948, the ship was sold to Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash., for scrapping. LST-390 earned one battle star for World War 11 service.

LST - 891 was laid down on 21 August 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 28 October 1944 sponsored by Miss Edyth Cole and commissioned on 27 November 1944, Lt. James F. Brown in command. During World War 11, LST-891 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early December 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 2 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 29 August 1947, the ship was sold to Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Wash., for scrapping. LST-891 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 892 was laid down on 17 September 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 28 October 1944 sponsored by Mrs. P. D. Bowman and commissioned on 30 November 1944, Lt. W. S. Miller in command. During World War 11, LST-892 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-February 1946. Upon -her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 5 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 27 October 1947, the ship was sold to the Moore Dry Dock Co., Oakland, Calif., for scrapping. LST-892 earned one battle star for World War II service..

LST - 893 was laid down on 24 September 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 4 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. John Schutt and commissioned on 4 December 1944. Following World War II, LST-893 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early December 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 8 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 June that same year. On 29 May 1948, the ship was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping. LST-894 LST-894 was laid down on 4 September 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 11 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Robert C. Norris and commissioned on 12 December 1944, Lt. F. N. Wood in command. During World War II, LST-894 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April and May 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until late November 1945. The ship was decommissioned on 29 April 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 July that same year. On 5 December 1947, she was sold to Bosey, Philippines. LST-894 earned one battle star for World War II service. LST-895 LST-895 was laid down on I October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 11 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Frank Brooks and commissioned on 16 December 1944. During World War 11, LST-895 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-September 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 17 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 12 March 1948. On 10 January 1952, the ship was, sold to Babbidge & Holt Co., Inc., Portland, Oreg. LST-895 earned one battle star for World War II service. LST-896 LST-896 was laid down on 6 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 18 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Russell D. Strouse and commissioned on 20 December 1944, Lt. Vinton C. Vint in command. Following World War 11, LST-896 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early December 1945. She was decommissioned on 3 December 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 3 January 1946. Her typhoon-damaged hulk was destroyed on 8 March 1946.

LST - 897 was laid down on 19 September 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 25 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Henry B. Taliaferro and commissioned on 22 December 1944, Lt. Peter K. Peterson, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-897 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May and June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-March 1946. The ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 23 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 15 June 1948, the tank landing ship was sold to Steel Powers for operation. LST-897 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 898 was laid down on 15 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 25 November 1944 sponsored by Mrs. J. B. Mahwhinney and commissioned on 29 December 1944, Lt. D. W. Kallock in command. During World War II, LST-898 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-March 1946. The ship was decommissioned on 9 May 1946 and transferred to the Army. Recommissioned on 28 August 1950, LST-898 performed extensive service during the Korean War and with the Pacific Fleet thereafter. On I July 1955, she was redesignated Lincoln County (LST-898) (q.v.) after counties in 24 states of the United States. Decommissioned again on 24 March 1961, Lincoln County was transferred to the Royal Thai Navy on 31 August 1962 where she served as Cheng (LST-2). LST-898 earned one battle star for World War 11 service and six for the Korean War.

LST - 899 was laid down on 22 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp. launched on 2 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. F. W. Trevorrow and commissioned on 1 January 1945, Lt. A. H. Thornton in command. Following World War II, LST-899 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 15 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 15 August that same year. On 5 December 1947, the ship was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping.


Today in World War II History—November 14, 1939 & 1944

80 Years Ago—November 14, 1939: In Lagunillas, Venezuela, an oil refinery fire kills 500 and destroys the town.

Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, 1944 (Imperial War Museum: TR 2625)

75 Years Ago—Nov. 14, 1944: British Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory dies in a plane crash in the French Alps, on his way to assume command in Southeast Asia.

French First Army opens assault toward Belfort Gap in France.

Movie premiere of documentary Combat America, produced by Clark Gable from footage he took on his five missions with the US 351 st Bomb Group based in England.

Capt. Clark Gable with a B-17 Flying Fortress in England, 1943 (US Army photo)


Today in World War II History—November 14, 1939 & 1944

80 Years Ago—November 14, 1939: In Lagunillas, Venezuela, an oil refinery fire kills 500 and destroys the town.

Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, 1944 (Imperial War Museum: TR 2625)

75 Years Ago—Nov. 14, 1944: British Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory dies in a plane crash in the French Alps, on his way to assume command in Southeast Asia.

French First Army opens assault toward Belfort Gap in France.

Movie premiere of documentary Combat America, produced by Clark Gable from footage he took on his five missions with the US 351 st Bomb Group based in England.

Capt. Clark Gable with a B-17 Flying Fortress in England, 1943 (US Army photo)


14 weird things that have happened in November through history

In November 1996, three people – two neighbours from Tipperary, southern Ireland, who shared a ticket, and another person who bought a ticket in County Waterford, southeast Ireland – shared the Irish Lotto jackpot of IR£1.6 million. The numbers the winners chose were based on the dates of the birth, ordination and death of St Pio of Pietrelcina (1887–1968), the Italian Catholic priest and mystic better known as ‘Padre Pio’.

A Lotto spokesman told the press that the use of numbers relating to saints was common among players. “The very first winner of the Lotto was a woman in Donegal who used the birth dates of her favourite saints,” they said.

Insuring a grim outcome

Jack Gilbert Graham of Colorado stood to inherit a substantial sum of money upon the death of his mother (some reports suggest $150,000), but he decided to up the stakes. On the morning of 1 November 1955, he escorted his mother to Denver Airport, carrying the suitcase he’d packed for her, which was, in fact, filled with dynamite.

United Airlines Flight 629 exploded in mid-air, killing Graham’s mother and 43 other people. Forensic examination of the site aroused suspicion, while witnesses came forward to say that they’d seen Graham at the airport frantically buying insurance policies from a vending machine (they had vending machines for everything in those days).

The criminal trial, one of the earliest to be televised, was a national sensation. Graham was found guilty and executed in January 1957.

Constable foretells election result

The US presidential election of 1976, held on 2 November, pitted the Democrat James Earl ‘Jimmy’ Carter against the incumbent Gerald Ford. This was the year in which the US was celebrating its bicentennial (200 years since the adoption of the Declaration of Independence), while a rather more low-key celebration marking the 200th anniversary of the painter John Constable was marked in Britain.

The Constable bicentenary, it was claimed, predicted the outcome of the presidential contest and the Democrat victory, because Constable’s most famous painting, The Hay Wain, shows a farm cart(er) going over a ford (crossing).

Lady Chatterley chatter

On 2 November 1960, an Old Bailey jury ruled that DH Lawrence’s novel Lady Chatterley’s Lover (1928) was not obscene. The case against Penguin Books famously included Mr Mervyn Griffith-Jones for the prosecution asking jurors: “Is it a book you would wish your wife or your servant to read?”

In the US, though, the quote about the book that’s best remembered comes from a review in country pursuits magazine Field & Stream: “This fictional account of the day-to-day life of an English gamekeeper is still of considerable interest to outdoor minded readers, as it contains many passages on pheasant raising, the apprehending of poachers, ways to control vermin, and other chores and duties of the professional gamekeeper.

“Unfortunately one is obliged to wade through many pages of extraneous material in order to discover and savour these sidelights on the management of a Midlands shooting estate, and in this reviewer’s opinion this book can not take the place of JR Miller’s Practical Gamekeeping.”

Many at the time (and since) considered this a serious review, but it was a joke – its author, Ed Zern, contributed humorous articles to the magazine.

Dogs in space

The first animal to go into orbit was a dog named Laika, shot off by the Russians on 3 November 1957 in Sputnik II. The capsule wasn’t designed to return to Earth, and Cosmodog Laika died a few hours after departing from earth.

This was a PR disaster for the Soviets, with protests from animal-lovers all over the world. Significantly, when the Russians launched a two-dog mission in 1960, the animals – Strelka and Belka – accompanied by a rabbit, 40 mice, two rats, and some flies – returned unharmed.

Strelka went on to have a number of puppies, one of which was presented to President Kennedy’s daughter Caroline by Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev.

Crane of thought

Robert Devereux, Second Earl of Essex, who was born on 10 November 1566, grew up vain and arrogant, and flattered his way into the affections of the ageing Queen Elizabeth I. Devereux’s life went swiftly downhill after his abortive rebellion, and he was executed for treason in 1601. It took three strokes of the executioner’s axe to despatch him.

According to legend, the executioner was one Thomas Derrick, who had been spared from a flogging for rape some years previously by the very same Earl of Essex on condition that he became an executioner.

Derrick had been a sailor and now used his experience with ropes, blocks and pulleys to devise a new type of hoisting beam that he employed to hang an alleged 3,000 miscreants.

The poorest rich woman in the world

Henrietta (‘Hetty’) Howland Robinson (née Green) was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, on 21 November 1838. Reading the financial pages of the papers at the age of six, Hetty would sit on her father’s knee and examine stock market reports with him.

Hetty inherited six million dollars, but was eager for more. She contested an aunt’s will, which left two million to charity and, when she married millionaire Edward Green, Hetty made him sign away all rights to her fortune. The couple had two children, but grew increasingly estranged because of Hetty’s miserliness and eccentricities.

In later years Hetty lived alone in a small, two-room apartment in Brooklyn, eating mainly oatmeal (heated on radiators) and broken biscuits. Yet she was one of the most able financiers of the age, investing shrewdly in real estate, mines, railroads, and government bonds. When she died a pauper’s death in 1916, she was probably the richest woman in the world.

Crawling for Jesus

“A lot of people tell me I’m crazy,” said Baptist minister Hans Mullikin in the 1970s, but as far as he was concerned, crawling 1,600 miles on his hands and knees from Texas to Washington was a religious act. His intention, he said, was to show America “that we need to get on our knees and repent”.

Mullikin crawled from his home in Marshall, Texas, to the gates of the White House in Washington DC, in two-and-a-half years. Equipped with footballer’s kneepads, he would crawl a certain distance, jog back to his car, drive the car up to the stopping point, then start crawling again, repeating this process over and over. The voyage was not continuous, as he returned home to work in the winter months to finance his journey.

When he arrived at the White House on 22 or 23 November 1978 (some ambiguity surrounds the date), President Carter was unavailable for a meeting.

King Otto I

Albania proclaimed itself independent of the Ottoman Empire on 28 November 1912. What happened in the immediate aftermath is a matter of some dispute. According to one story, the independence leaders chose as their ‘protector’ Halim Eddine, a Turkish prince. Eddine turned up in Durrës, the then Albanian capital, richly dressed and accompanied by a strapping bodyguard. He declared an amnesty for all prisoners, a week of celebrations, and appointed all the feudal grandees a place in his cabinet. In turn, he was presented with 25 women for his harem. It was suggested that he be formally crowned king, and so became known as King Otto.

King Otto I of Albania reigned for five days. On day five, the Albanian prime minister received a telegram from Halim Eddine, puzzled to hear reports of his reception, as he hadn’t left Turkey yet. The impostor was a German circus performer named Otto Witte (1872–1958), with sword-swallower Max Schlepsig as one of his bodyguards.

Back in Germany the authorities reportedly permitted Witte’s identity card to bear the words: ‘Former King of Albania’.

A humane invention

Contrary to popular belief, Richard Jordan Gatling (1818–1903) did not ‘invent’ the machine gun. He merely patented what turned out to be one of the earliest practical ones, on 4 November 1862.

Gatling was a prolific inventor, and his gun – a sequence of rotating barrels operated by a hand-crank – was based on a seed-planting machine he had devised. Gatling later claimed that the gun, far from making the battlefield more murderous, had been invented for humane reasons: “It occurred to me that if I could invent a machine – a gun – which could by its rapidity of fire, enable one man to do as much battle duty as a hundred, that it would, to a large extent, supersede the necessity of large armies.” Thus, fewer soldiers would be needed and fewer people would be killed.

Baby saint

The feast of St Rumwold (also sometimes known as Rumwald or Rumbold), one of the most interesting of Britain’s Anglo-Saxon saints, is celebrated on 3 November. Rumwold was a grandson of Penda, King of Mercia in the mid-7th century and was born, according to legend, at King’s Sutton, Northamptonshire, and died three days later. During his brief life he is supposed to have said “I am a Christian” several times professed his belief in the Holy Trinity asked for baptism and Holy Communion and preached a sermon on the importance of the Trinity and the need for clean living among all good Christians.

The cult of this highly improbable saint was popular in England before the Norman invasion.

Great Catherine’s dull death

The death of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia in November 1796 is surrounded in scandalous legend. With the help of her lover, Count Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov, Catherine deposed her husband Peter III in 1762 and took the throne.

Catherine had a succession of lovers after Orlov, each initially ‘road-tested’ by Catherine’s chief lady-in-waiting, the Countess Bruce. Bruce was sacked when it was found she was ‘road-testing’ young Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov (an ancestor of the composer) far more than was deemed necessary.

Catherine’s love-life became the scandal of Europe, leading to all manner of outrageous stories, the silliest ones being about how she died: she was, the story goes, crushed to death by a horse (in other versions, a bull) that had been suspended over her bed using a harness used for unspeakable purposes. In another version of the story, Catherine was assassinated by spring-loaded blades in her toilet seat.

In reality she had a stroke, lapsed into a coma, and died in a bed of which she was, at the time, the sole occupant.

Pulling the plug

Lake Peigneur in Louisiana was 10ft deep, with a botanical park on one side and some oil wells on the other. On 20 November 1980, contractors working for Texaco were drilling a test hole in the middle of the lake when their rig started to tilt.

The five-man crew fled for the shore as the water in the lake started to turn into a huge whirlpool. A large crater formed at the bottom of the lake as though someone had pulled the plug from an enormous bath, and all the water in Lake Peigneur ran out of the increasingly large hole.

The whirlpool consumed the drilling platform a tugboat 11 barges greenhouses from the nearby botanical gardens a couple of trucks and trailers 65 acres of land and another nearby rig – along with 1.5 billion gallons of lake water.

The drillers, it transpired, had drilled into a salt mine. They knew it was there, but just didn’t think it was right under their borehole. Nobody was killed in the incident the hole was stabilized and the lake filled once more.

Cheating the bank, and the hangman

Henry Fauntleroy was a partner in Marsh, Sibbald & Co, an early 19th-century London bank. His earnings allowed him to indulge his obsession with Napoleon, to the extent he decorated his parlour like the inside of Bonaparte’s campaign tent.

The reason Henry could afford this opulence was simple he was embezzling cash from the bank. His death sentence after being caught was unpopular: Henry was a flamboyant figure who had earned himself a number of fans, many of whom appealed for clemency. One fan even offered to be executed in Fauntleroy’s place.

Nevertheless, Henry was hanged on 30 November 1824… or was he? Before the introduction of the hangman’s drop, which kills by breaking the neck of its victim, hanging was a matter of slow strangulation, and a legend arose that it was possible to cheat the rope by inserting a silver tube into the windpipe.

Fauntleroy was said to have used this method and made a quiet escape after being cut down for dead. There is no evidence that this happened, but many people believed it.

Eugene Byrne is an author and journalist. To find out more, visit eugenebyrne.wordpress.com or follow him on Twitter @EugeneByrne.

This article was first published on History Extra in November 2015


Liberation of the camps

Dachau prisoners cheer the liberating US Army © On April 18 1945 General Eisenhower telephoned Churchill about the entry of his troops into a number of concentration camps in Western and Central Germany. That afternoon Churchill told the House of Commons of the 'horror' felt by the government at "the proofs of these frightful crimes now coming into view", and he added:

'The matter is of urgency, as of course, it is not possible to arrest the processes of decay in many cases. In view of this urgency, I have come to the conclusion that eight members of this House and two members of the House of Lords should form a Parliamentary Delegation and should travel out at once to the Supreme Headquarters, where General Eisenhower will make all necessary arrangements for their inspection of the scenes, whether in American or British sectors.'

'People are profoundly shocked here,' Churchill telegraphed to Eisenhower that evening.

From the first to the last day of the war, the fate of the Jews was something on which Churchill took immediate and positive action whenever he was asked to do so. In addition, in 1940 he refused to contemplate making peace with Hitler, and for the next four years used every fibre of his being to devise means of defeating Hitler. Even when the Gestapo system was in the ascendant over much of Europe, at the very time when most Jews were being murdered, Churchill had faith that it would one day be possible to defeat Nazism altogether. This faith communicated itself to the ghettos and was itself a potent factor for morale behind German lines.


The Party Begins Again

Although the party was banned, members continued to operate under the mantle of the “German Party” between 1924 and 1925, with the ban officially ending on February 27, 1925. On that day, Hitler, who had been released from prison in December 1924, re-founded the Nazi Party.

With this fresh start, Hitler redirected the party’s emphasis toward strengthening their power via the political arena rather than the paramilitary route. The party also now had a structured hierarchy with a section for “general” members and a more elite group known as the “Leadership Corps.” Admission into the latter group was through a special invitation from Hitler.

The party re-structuring also created a new position of Gauleiter, which was regional leaders that were tasked with building party support in their specified areas of Germany. A second paramilitary group was also created, the Schutzstaffel (SS), which served as the special protection unit for Hitler and his inner circle.

Collectively, the party sought success via the state and federal parliamentary elections, but this success was slow to come to fruition.


Lawyers seek new trial for 14-year-old South Carolina boy executed in 1944

Supporters of a 14-year-old black boy put to death in 1944 for the murders of two young white girls have asked a judge in South Carolina to grant him a new trial.

An all-white jury took barely 10 minutes to convict George Stinney of bludgeoning the girls, aged 11 and seven, in the segregated town of Alcolu. He was electrocuted just 84 days after the crime as the youngest person to be executed in the US during the 20th Century, according to the Death Penalty Information Centre.

Steve McKenzie, the lawyer acting for Stinney's family, filed the trial request in Clarendon County, claiming that the teenager's conviction was based on a forced confession and a racially divided community's desire for revenge. Analysts say the motion is largely symbolic and faces little chance of success because of strict state rules that largely prohibit the introduction of new evidence after the conclusion of a trial.

But family members say that just getting the case back into a courtroom after seven decades will be a victory in itself.

"His family is still thriving, but his soul is not at rest," said Irene Hill, Stinney's second cousin. "It has been 69 years now, and there still is no justice. There has been no justice for George, nor for those two young girls, because we know that he is innocent."

The bodies of June Binnicker, 11, and Mary Emma Thames, seven, were found in a creek on 25 March 1944, after they were reported missing while picking wildflowers the day before. Both were stabbed to death with a railway spike.

A town resident said he saw Stinney, who was playing outside with his younger sister, talking to two young girls. He was arrested and put on trial one month after the girls disappeared, with the entire case lasting only two and a half hours and the teenager represented by a court-appointed lawyer who called no defence witnesses.

McKenzie's motion, which says Stinney weighed only 90lb and would have been physically unable to commit the crime, contains sworn statements from two of his siblings, who say he was with them throughout the day the victims went missing.

Charles Stinney, who was 12 at the time, explained in the new court filing why his family did not co-operate with investigators after the murders.

"George's conviction and execution was something my family believed could happen to any of us in the family. Therefore, we made a decision for the safety of the family to leave it be," he wrote.

Many of the notes and documents from the original trial, including Stinney's alleged confession and the transcript of the case, have been lost, the motion states, with the exception of a few pages of cryptic, hand-written notes.

While other executed inmates have been posthumously pardoned in the state, University of South Carolina law school professor Kenneth Gaines said he was unaware of any being granted a new trial.

"I think it's a long-shot, but I admire the lawyer for trying it," he said, adding that the judge could yet refuse to hear the motion.

No date has been set for a hearing. A spokesman for the South Carolina attorney general's office said its lawyers had not yet seen the paperwork and would not comment on a pending case.


Baltic Independence

The Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were the last to enter the Soviet Union as union republics and the first to leave. Out of the turmoil of war and revolution, they emerged as independent nation-states, formally recognized as such by the Soviet government in 1920. Twenty years later, they lost their independence when they were forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union following the Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 1939. In the wake of the Nazi invasion of the USSR, the three republics were placed under German rule, but the return of the Red Army in 1944 led to the re-imposition of Soviet power. Sovietization entailed the collectivization of agriculture, industrialization, and cultural and educational development within strictures laid down by Moscow. In Latvia and Estonia, it also meant the absorption of substantial numbers of ethnic Russians who comprised the majority of industrial workers. Yet, in other respects these most geographically and culturally western republics remained the least Soviet, and in 1991 their popularly elected governments declared independence from the USSR with overwhelming support.

Political independence, the dream of many in the Baltic region who long chafed under Soviet rule, was made possible thanks to Gorbachev’s policy of glasnost. The issue that first galvanized popular protest was the environment, with major demonstrations against the expansion of polluting industries occurring in Riga in November 1986 and Tallinn in the spring of 1987. In the course of 1988, as glasnost took root, the monolithic unity of the Communist parties in all three republics crumbled and those in the reform wing gained key positions in the state and party leaderships. Also in 1988, reformist and populist forces, including Communists outside and within the republican establishments coalesced into so-called popular fronts: Sajudis in Lithuania, the Popular Front for the Support of Perestroika in Estonia, and the Latvian Popular Front. These organizations agitated for restoration of pre-Soviet national emblems, more republican control over economic affairs, the publication of the “secret protocols” of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, limitations on immigration from the other Soviet republics, and a vaguely defined political “autonomy.” The popular fronts proved extremely effective in heightening national sentiment by sponsoring mass song festivals and, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Nazi-Soviet Pact in August 1989, a human chain linking hands across the three republics.

Already by late 1988 in Estonia and mid-1989 in Lithuania and Latvia respective republican Supreme Soviets declared the “sovereignty” of their laws. In November 1989, they issued declarations condemning the “military occupation” of their countries and renouncing their incorporation into the USSR. The next, fateful step was taken by the newly elected parliament (Sejm) in Lithuania, which on March 11, 1990 declared the republic an independent state. The declaration provoked Moscow to impose economic sanctions and was suspended in June, but tensions remained high. Spurred on by their nationalist president, Vytautus Landsbergis, Lithuanians engaged in numerous acts of civil disobedience, and on January 11, 1991 Soviet MVD troops opened fire on a crowd in Vilnius, killing fourteen. Five days later, similar violence occurred in Riga, leaving five dead. The emergence of National Salvation Committees, consisting primarily of ethnic Russians and pro-Moscow Communists, signaled a last-ditch attempt to reverse the tide of independence. But beleaguered by economic and political breakdown throughout the USSR, Gorbachev had neither the will nor the means to prevent the Baltic republics from breaking away. In the aftermath of the failed coup of August 1991, the Estonian and Latvian parliaments joined Lithuania in declaring their country independent.


In Nov. 1944, thousands of conscripted Canadian soldiers based in Terrace, B.C. paraded through the streets protesting efforts to send them overseas. The mutiny, which began on November 24, 1944, and ended on November 29, 1944, was the most serious breach of discipline in Canadian military history.

My grandfather said the nickname for the conscripted Canadian soldiers was zombies. Not sure if it applied to the home defence force or just the ones sent overseas. His future brother in law was a conscript and was sent as a replacement with the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada.

Conscription in Canada was a sensitive policy during both world wars. During WWII conscripts were told they were needed to defend Canada from direct attack or more broadly any attack on North America, otherwise they would not be shipped overseas unless they volunteered to serve. By 1944 the direct threat to North America had largely subsided. However, Canadian casualties in ETO units were high and the volunteer replacement pool could not meet the demand for new men. So the Canadian government tried to encourage the men in these defense units to “volunteer” for active service in the ETO. Many conscripts were hostile to the government to begin with and would not volunteer. The lack of patriotism may have been more of the traditional Quebec vs. English resentment. However, I’m not well versed in Canadian societal issues and would hope some other member of this community can offer a better perspective of the root causes for this mutiny


Allied Diversionary Offensives and Advances

From September a series of Allied offensives on the Western Front were launched in sequence at about the same time as the main Meuse-Argonne Offensive. This was to avoid the situation whereby the Germans might mass their available reserves in one particular place and create a problem for the momentum of the Allied advance along the northern half of the Western Front. The series of Allied attacks took place in part against the heavily defended Hindenburg Line in the following offensives:

  • the French and Belgian Flanders Offensive
  • the Ypres Offensive
  • the Cambrai Offensive
  • the St. Quentin Offensive
  • the Meuse-Argonne Offensive

Advances in Flanders

Allied advances took place in French and Belgian Flanders between late September into October 1918. The main series of battles were known as The Flanders Advance or the Fifth Battle of Ypres or the Battle of the Peaks of Flanders (28 September - 2 October 1918) by the British Second and Fifth Armies and the 27th American Division. The advance included an action in August called the Action at Outtersteene Ridge (18 August 1918).

First American Offensive at St. Mihiel Salient

The Battle of St. Mihiel (12 - 16 September 1918) was the first large-scale, separate offensive by American forces on the Western Front. By late summer 1918 the strategic importance of the German-held salient south of Verdun had was not so prominent as it was in 1917, when the newly arrived American Staff officers arrived on the Western Front. Their desire at that time was to carry out a separate offensive by American forces against the danger posed by this salient. Marshal Foch, commander of the Allied forces on the Western Front in late 1918, had to be convinced it was still relevant to make the attack. He did agree, although he was also wishing to use the American forces for an assault west of Verdun in the Meuse-Argonne sector. The German forces were in the process of evacuating the salient when the American First Army attacked them, supported by French tanks and artillery and 600 Allied aircraft. The offensive successfully cleared the Germans from the salient and 15,000 German prisoners were captured with 250 guns. A few days later the American First Army transferred to the Meuse-Argonne sector in preparation for an attack.

The Allied Meuse Argonne Offensive

The Meuse Argonne Offensive (26 September - 11 November 1918) was an Allied offensive with the aim of pushing the German Armies further east from their positions at the Hindenburg Line, cutting the Germans off from their important rail routes supplying their front line sectors. The Allied attack comprised a total of 37 French and US divisions opposing 24 German divisions. There were three fortified German lines, two of which were breached by 5 October. Another assault was started up again on 14 October by the First and Second US Armies but they suffered heavy casualties without making progress. Once again on 1 November the Allied offensive started up and the third German defensive line was breached. As the advance progressed northwards the towns of Mézières, Charleville and Sedan were recaptured.

Breaking Through the Hindenburg Line

The Battle of Havrincourt (12 September 1918) was launched as a successful attack by the British Third Army with three divisions against four German Army divisions holding the fortified town of Havrincourt.

The Battle of Epéhy (18 September 1918) was launched against a 20 mile section of outpost positions for the Hindenburg Line. Following the success at Havrincourt, three corps of the British Fourth Army, one corps of the British Third Army and units of the French First Army. The left and right wings of the advance progressed with difficulty, but the two Australian divisions in the centre of the advance were successful in achieving an advance of three miles. The success of this attack showed to the Allies that the German defence, even on the fortified Hindenburg Line positions, was not impossible to break through.

The Battle of Canal du Nord (27 September - 1 October 1918) took place against a section of the canal and the outskirts of Cambrai. The British First Army was to cross the canal continuing the advance following on from the Battle of the Drocourt-Quéant Line and advance towards Cambrai.

The Battle of the St. Quentin Canal (29 September - 2 October 1918) was an attack launched on 29 September by US, French and British forces. A north-south stretch of this canal between St. Quentin and Vendhuille had been incorporated into the German defences of the Hindenburg Line. The German defences on the canal comprised not only barbed wire entanglements and traps, but generally this stretch of canal was in a deep cutting of about 50 to 80 metres. The canal ran through a tunnel at Bellicourt and there was a bridge further south of the tunnel at Bellenglise. The British Fourth Army and the French First Army had reached the canal sector in mid September, and were tasked with crossing the canal at the tunnel section or by the bridge. An attempt by a US regiment to clear the German strongpoints at Bellicourt in advance of the main attack did not succeed, and the attack by US and Australian troops on 29 th September did not make progress through the Hindenburg Line at Bellicourt. However, an attack by the British IX Corps at Bellenglise did succeed in crossing the bridge with two divisions before the Germans could blow it up. With reinforcements brought down from Bellicourt following across the bridge, the Allied crossing of the canal advanced about 6 miles beyond the canal by the end of the day. Over 5,000 German prisoners were captured.

The Battle of the Beaurevoir Line (3 - 5 October 1918)

The Second Battle of Cambrai (8 October - 10 October 1918) was a successful offensive by the British First, Third and Fourth Armies with the support of tanks. The advance crossed three German lines of defence which were lightly manned, took Cambrai within two days and suffered very light casualties.

The Battle of Courtrai, also known as the Battle of Roulers or the Second Battle of Belgium (14 - 19 October 1918) followed on after a pause of a couple of weeks from the end of the Allied Flanders Advance. By this time the Army Group of Flanders (GAF) comprised a total of 28 divisions from the Belgian, British and French Armies under the command of King Albert I of Belgium. The successful advance recaptured a number of Belgian towns including Menin, Courtrai, Roulers (Flemish name: Roeselare), Ostend, Bruges, Zeebrugge, and the French towns of Lille and Douai. Units of the advance reached the Dutch border by 19 October.

The Battle of the Selle (17 - 26 October 1918) took place as the Allies continued the advance after the Second Battle of Cambrai, recapturing French villages one by one as the German forces reatreated to the north-east.

The Battle of Valenciennes (1 November 1918) was an offensive carried out by the British Third Army to advance to the French-Belgian border and the city of Valenciennes. The city was re-captured by Canadian troops on 2 nd November.

The Battle of the Sambre (4 November 1918) was a continuation of the Allied advance by Haig's Army Group (the First, Third and Fourth Armies and the French First Army) coming from the direction of Valenciennes. The Allied troops were to advance from the Condé Canal on a thirty mile front towards Maubeuge-Mons. The offensive included the the Second Battle of Guise (4 - 5 November 1918).


Watch the video: Django Reinhardt - Si Tu Savais - Paris, 14 November 1947 (December 2022).

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