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C-109 Modification Manual - p.14 Drawing List

C-109 Modification Manual - p.14 Drawing List


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C-109 Modification Manual - p.14 Drawing List

Many thanks to Paul Stahl Jr, for sending us this modification manual for the C-109 fuel transport, an modified verison of the B-24 bomber. His father, Paul Stahl Sr, was the project engineer for the C-109.


Consolidated C-109 Gallery

TEXT

Page 14 - Section 6 - Drawings Released on C-10 Aircraft

SECTION 6

DRAWINGS RELEASED ON C-109 AIRCRAFT

MODIFICATION TM-15

109-M15-G1000Master Modification Schedule for C-109 Aircraft
109-M15-G1001

Ship Model Number Designation

MODIFICATION TB-4 (Radio)

109-B4-R1000Inst. Dwg. RC-103 Radio
109-B4-R1001

Detail and Assy. -- Box Connector RC-103

109-B4-R1002Shelf RC-103 Receivers
109-B4-R1003Detials Angle Braces
109-B4-R1004Decals Switches RC-103
109-B4-R1005Assy. Shelf RC-103 Radio
109-B4-R1006Wiring Diagram Dual RC-103

MODIFICATION TB-5 (Radio)

109-B5-R1000Installation SCR522 Radio
B-10506

Antenna Brace 522 Radio

B-10887Antenna Mounting Bkt. 522 Radio
B-10508Base Transmitter 522 Radio
B-10510Mounting Plate Mike Adapter M-299
B-10513Control Box Bkt. 522 Radio
B-10514Wiring Diagram Harness SCR522
B-10890Inst. Antenna AN-104

MODIFICATION TB-19B (Radio)

109-B19B-R1000Inst. AN/APN-4 Radio
109-B19B-R1001

Detail Angle Supports Mtg. Rack SCR622 Radio

109-B19B-R1002Mounting for MG. 149F Inverter AN/ARN-4 Radio
109-B19B-R1003Wiring Diagram AN/ARN-4 Radio
B-11407Assy. Radio Equip. Rack
B-11410Angle Support Base Radio Ind. Bkt.
B-11412Mtg. Support Radio Ind. Bkt.
B-11413Angle Legs for Radio Ind. Bkt.
B-11414Gusset Radio Indicator Bkt.
B-11441Detail Radio Junction Box
B-11454Decal for Radio Power Junction Box
B-11388-PAntenna Change-Over Switch SCR622

MODIFICATION TB-22B (Radio)

109-B22B-R1000Inst. SCR718 Radio
109-B22B-R1001

Reinforcement Strips

109-B22B-R1002Detail Angle Support Trans


Egyptian Pyramids

Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in the world, the pyramids𠅎specially the Great Pyramids of Giza𠅊re some of the most magnificent man-made structures in history. Their massive scale reflects the unique role that the pharaoh, or king, played in ancient Egyptian society. Though pyramids were built from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic period in the fourth century A.D., the peak of pyramid building began with the late third dynasty and continued until roughly the sixth (c. 2325 B.C.). More than 4,000 years later, the Egyptian pyramids still retain much of their majesty, providing a glimpse into the country’s rich and glorious past.


Contents

Pre-war tests and conceptualization Edit

Advances in early-20th century technology resulted in widespread mechanisation of the military during World War I. The United States Army deployed thousands of motor vehicles in that war, including some 12,800 Dodges, [21] and thousands of four-wheel drive trucks: Jeffery / Nash Quads, and trucks from the Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD). General John Pershing viewed horses and mules as acceptable for the previous three U.S. wars, but in the new century, his cavalry forces had to move quicker, with more range and more personnel. [22]

Immediately after World War I, the use of motor vehicles in that war was considered only a prelude to much greater application in future armed conflicts. As early as 1919, the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps recommended the acquisition of a new kind of military vehicle, ".. of light weight and compact size, with a low silhouette and high ground clearance, and possess the ability to carry weapons and men over all sorts of rough terrain." [23] The U.S. Army started looking for a small vehicle suited for reconnaissance and messaging, while at the same time searching for a light cross-country weapons carrier. [24]

At the same time, there was a drive for standardization. By the end of World War I, U.S. forces overseas had a total of 216 makes and models of motor vehicles to operate, both foreign and domestic, and no good supply system to keep them running. [18]

Various light motor vehicles were tested — at first motorcycles with and without sidecars, and some modified Ford Model Ts. [25] [26] In the early 1930s, the U.S. Army experimented with a bantam weight "midget truck" for scouts and raiders. A 1,050 lb (480 kg), low-slung mini-car with a pick-up body, provided by American Austin, [27] was shown in a 1933 article in Popular Mechanics magazine. [28] One of the pictures showed that the vehicle was light enough to be man-handled — four soldiers could lift it from the ground entirely.

After 1935, when the U.S. Congress declared World War I vehicles obsolete, procurement for "remotorization of the Army" gained more traction. [29] In 1937 Marmon-Herrington presented five 4x4 Fords, and American Bantam (previously American Austin) once again contributed — delivering three Austin derived roadsters in 1938. [30] [20]

Meanwhile, in Asia and the Pacific, Japan had already invaded Manchuria in 1931, and was warring with China from 1937. Its Imperial Army used a small, three-man crew, four-wheel drive car for reconnaissance and troop movements, the Kurogane Type 95, introduced in 1936.

Development start – Bantam Reconnaissance Car Edit

In the early 1930s, the Infantry Board at Fort Benning became interested in the British Army's use of the tiny Austin 7 car in a reconnaissance role, and they obtained a car from the American Austin company in Pennsylvania which built them under license. By 1938 American Austin had gone bankrupt and reorganized as American Bantam. They had loaned 3 cars to the Pennsylvania National Guard for trials during summer maneuvers. Bantam officials met with chiefs of Infantry and Cavalry and suggested a contract to further develop a military version of their car. A subcommittee of army officers and civilian engineers was tasked with creating detailed specifications for the proposed vehicles. One of the first things they did was to visit the Bantam factory and look at their existing compact cars. By the end of June 1940 specifications had been drawn up [34]

By now the war was underway in Europe, so the Army's need was urgent and demanding. Bids were to be received by 22 July, a span of just eleven days. Manufacturers were given 49 days to submit their first prototype and 75 days for completion of 70 test vehicles. The Army's Ordnance Technical Committee specifications were equally stringent: the vehicle would be four-wheel drive, have a crew of three on a wheelbase of no more than 75 in (191 cm), later upped to 80 in (203 cm), and track no more than 47 in (119 cm). The diminutive dimensions were similar in size and weight to Bantam's compact truck and roadster models. [36] It was to feature a fold-down windshield, carry a 660 lb (299 kg) payload, and be powered by an engine capable of 85 lb⋅ft (115 N⋅m) of torque. The most daunting demand, however, was an empty weight of no more than 1,300 lb (590 kg).

Initially, only American Bantam and Willys-Overland entered the competition. Ford joined later. [37] Although Willys was the low bidder, Willys was penalized for requesting more time, and Bantam received the contract, as the only company committing to deliver a pilot model in 49 days and production examples in 75 .

Bantam's chief engineer, Harold Crist, who had previously worked on the first Duesenberg, and been an engineer at Stutz Motor Company of Indianapolis for 18 years, [36] [13] drafted freelance Detroit designer Karl Probst to collaborate. Probst turned down Bantam initially, but agreed to work without pay after an Army request and began work on 17 July 1940. [38]

Probst laid out full design drawings for the Bantam prototype, known as the Bantam Reconnaissance Car, or BRC, in just two days, and worked up a cost estimate the next day. Bantam's bid was submitted, complete with blueprints, on 22 July. [39] Bantam was struggling after bankruptcy trying to sell very small cars licensed from the British Austin Motor Company. But their design was able to leverage commercial off-the-shelf components as much as possible. Bantam adapted body stampings from its car line: the hood, cowl, dash, and curvy front fenders. As the Bantam engines only made 22 hp [40] the engine was chosen to be a 112 cu in (1.8 l) Continental four-cylinder engine making 45 horsepower and 86 lb⋅ft (117 N⋅m) of torque. [41] Custom four-wheel drive train components including the transfer case to send power to front and back axles were provided by Spicer which continues to make Jeep axles as Dana Incorporated. The axles were modified from units from the Studebaker Champion to four-wheel drive, the transmission was from Warner Gear. [42]

Using off-the-shelf automotive parts where possible had partly enabled drawing up the blueprints quickly. By working backward, Probst and Bantam's draftsmen converted what Crist and a few others had put together into drawings. [13] The hand-built prototype was then completed in Butler, Pennsylvania, [43] and driven to the Army vehicle test center at Camp Holabird, Maryland. It was delivered on 23 September 1940. The vehicle met all the Army's criteria except engine torque. The Bantam pilot (later also dubbed the "Blitz Buggy" or "Old Number One") presented Army officials with the first of what eventually evolved into the World War II U.S. military jeep.

Enter Willys and Ford – pre-production jeeps Edit

As Bantam did not have the production capacity or financial resources to deliver on the scale needed by the War Department, the other two bidders, Ford and Willys, were encouraged to complete their own pilot models for testing. The contract for the new reconnaissance car was to be determined by trials. As testing of the Bantam prototype took place from 27 September to 16 October, Ford and Willys technical representatives present at Holabird were given ample opportunity to study the vehicle's performance. In order to expedite production, the War Department forwarded the Bantam blueprints to Ford and Willys, claiming the government owned the design. Bantam did not dispute this move due to its precarious finances.

By November 1940, Ford and Willys each submitted prototypes to compete with the Bantam in the Army's trials. The pilot models, the Willys "Quad" and the Ford "Pygmy", were similar and were joined in testing by Bantam's entry, now evolved into a Mark II called the "BRC 60" . [nb 7] [nb 8]
By then the U.S. armed forces were in such haste, and allies like Britain, France, and Russia were urging to acquire these new "Blitz-Buggies", [nb 9] that all three cars were declared acceptable and orders for 1,500 units per company were given for field testing and export. At this time it was acknowledged the original weight limit (which even Bantam could not meet) was unrealistic, and it was raised to 2,160 lb (980 kg).

For pre-production runs, each vehicle received revisions and a new name. Bantam's became the "BRC 40". Production began on 31 March 1941, with a total of 2,605 built up to 6 December — the number ordered was raised because Britain and Russia already wanted more of them supplied under the Lend-Lease program. [45] [46] [35]

The BRC 40 was the lightest and most nimble of the three pre-standardized models, and the Army lauded its good suspension, brakes, and high fuel economy. However, as the company could not meet the Army's demand for 75 Jeeps a day, production contracts were also awarded to Willys and Ford. [15]

After reducing the Quad's weight by 240 lb (109 kg), through many painstaking detail changes, Willys renamed their vehicle "MA", for "Military" model "A". Some 1,555 MAs were built, most of which went to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease. Only 27 units are still known to exist. [35]

Ford's pre-production model went into production as the "GP", with "G" indicating a "Government" contract, and "P" chosen by Ford to designate a car with a wheelbase of 80 in (203 cm). [nb 10] With about 4,458 units built, the Ford GP became not only the most numerous of the pre-standardized jeeps [35] — it was also the first jeep fielded in some numbers to U.S. Army units. The Ford's overall design and quality of construction had advantages over the Bantam and Willys models, but the GP's engine, an adaptation of the Model N tractor engine, was underpowered and insufficiently reliable. Fifty units were built with four-wheel steering, of which four have survived. [35]

Eventually, virtually all of the Bantam- and Willys-built jeeps were provided to Britain and Russia, as well as most of the Ford GPs, leaving under 1,000 GPs for the home troops. [45]

Full production – Willys MB and Ford GPW Edit

By July 1941, the War Department desired to standardize and decided to select a single manufacturer to supply them with the next order for 16,000 vehicles. Willys won the contract mostly due to its much more powerful 60 HP engine (the "Go Devil"), which soldiers raved about, and its lower cost and silhouette. The design features in the Bantam and Ford entries which represented an improvement over Willys's design were then incorporated into the Willys car, moving it from an "A" designation to "B", thus the "MB" nomenclature. Most notable was a flat wide hood, adapted from Ford GP.

The jeep, once it entered mass production, introduced several new automotive technologies. Having four-wheel drive for the first time introduced the need for a transfer case, and the use of constant-velocity joints on the driven front wheels and axle, to a regular production car-sized vehicle. [47]

By October 1941, it became clear that Willys-Overland could not keep up with production demand, and Ford was contracted to build jeeps as well, using Willys blueprints, drawings, specifications, and patents, including the Willys engine. [48] The Ford car was then designated "GPW", with the "W" referring to the "Willys" licensed design and engine. During World War II, Willys produced 363,000 Jeeps and Ford some 280,000. Some 50,000 were exported to the U.S.S.R. under the Lend-Lease program. [8] For Bantam, jeep production stopped, Bantam received no further orders from the U.S. government and instead made two-wheel jeep trailers. This continued until the company was taken over in 1956. [49]

Ford built jeeps with functionally interchangeable parts and components, in part facilitated by using components from common sources: frames from Midland Steel, wheels from Kelsey-Hayes, and axles and transfer-cases from Spicer. [48] However, there were many minor differences the most well known: the Ford chassis had an inverted U-shaped front cross member instead of a tubular bar, and a Ford script letter "F" was stamped onto many small parts. Many body detail differences remained for as long as January 1944, when a composite body, fabricated by American Central, was adopted by both Ford and Willys. It integrated features of both designs. [35] Through the chaotic circumstances of war, sometimes peculiar deviations from regular mass-production came off the assembly line, that are now prized by collectors. For instance: the earliest Ford GPWs had a Willys design frame, and in late-1943, some GPWs came with an unmodified Willys body and in 1945 Willys produced some MBs with a deep mud exhaust system, vacuum windshield wipers, and a Jeep CJ-style parking brake. [50]

On 7 April 1942, U.S. patent 2278450 for the WW II jeep, titled "Military vehicle body" was awarded to the U.S. Army, which had applied for it, listing Colonel Byron Q. Jones as the inventor on the patent, though he had performed no work on the design of the vehicle. [51] Filed on 8 October 1941, stating in the application that "The invention described herein, if patented, may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalty thereon", [52] the patent relates to a "small car vehicle body having convertible features whereby it is rendered particularly desirable for military purposes" and describes the purpose of the vehicle as being to create the automobile equivalent of a Swiss Army knife:

"One of the principal objects of the invention is to provide a convertible small car body so arranged that a single vehicle may be interchangeably used as a cargo truck, personnel carrier, emergency ambulance, field beds, radio car, trench mortar unit, mobile anti-aircraft machine gun unit, or for other purposes." [52]

The Ford GPA, the amphibious jeep Edit

A further roughly 13,000 amphibious jeeps were built by Ford under the name GPA (nicknamed "Seep" for "Sea Jeep"). Inspired by the larger DUKW, the vehicle was produced too quickly and proved to be too heavy, too unwieldy, and with insufficient freeboard. In spite of participating successfully in the Sicily landings in July 1943, most GPAs were routed to the U.S.S.R. under the Lend-Lease program. The Soviets were sufficiently pleased with its ability to cross rivers to develop their own version of it after the war, the GAZ-46 MAV.

Accessories and equipment fittings Edit

Contrary to the larger Dodge WC series, the Willys and Ford jeeps were all the same from factory, and specialization happened only through standardized accessories, field kits, and local modifications. Frequently made additions to the standard jeeps were to fit weaponry, communications equipment, medical gear, wire cutters, or rudimentary armor.

Jeep trailer Edit

Radio gear Edit

The jeep's primary command and reconnaissance roles of course necessitated fitting many kinds of tactical communication equipment. The first standard production fitting was for the SCR-193 radio, placed on either side in the rear of a jeep, on top of the rear wheel well. For proper reception, this included radio interference suppression shielding, so indicated by a suffix 'S' on the jeep's hood registration number. In 1943/1944, the Army shifted to FM radios, and new fittings were developed for those. At least fourteen Signal Corps Radio set fittings were standardized, including for the SCR-187, SCR-284, SCR-499, SCR-506, SCR-508, SCR-510, SCR-522, SCR-528, SCR-542, SCR-608, SCR-610, SCR-619, SCR-628, SCR-694, SCR-808, SCR-828, and VRC-l. [53]

Gun mounts Edit

Aside from actual fielding intentions, the jeep was widely used for various weapons mounts trials during World War II, simply because the jeep was a handy platform to test all kinds of ring mounts, multiple gun mounts, as well as different weapons. The widespread adoption of the jeep in other armies also meant many different armaments. The most rigorous efforts were by the British. Perhaps the most well-known are the jeeps modified by the SAS for the 1942 desert raids in Egypt. These had several armaments, commonly using twin Vickers K machine guns on the passenger side. These also served as a pattern for the later British airborne jeeps, armed with single Vickers K guns.

Field kits Edit

Many field kits originated as locally made modifications and additions, for which standard kits were later produced by both the U.S. and Britain. Frequently used examples were rear baggage racks, ambulance litters and frames to transport lying wounded on jeeps, and wire cutters. Soldiers frequently ran into (literally) wires — either inadvertently, inconveniently strung communication wires, or deliberately placed by the enemy, to injure or kill motorcycle and vehicle personnel. The typical countermeasure was to mount a tall vertical steel bar to the front bumper, that would either cut offending strings, or deflect them over the heads of the jeep crew. This was first used in Tunisia, 1943, but became frequent in Italy (1943–1945), and especially necessary in France (1944). [54]

More specific kits were created to enhance off-roading and mechanical capabilities, dealing with extreme climates, and technical support applications, like laying communication cables, or a field arc welder kit. [55]

Off-road enhancements Edit

Arctic weather measures Edit

Willys developed a winterization kit for very cold climates. This included a cold-starting stove, crankcase ventilator, primer, hood insulation blanket, radiator blanket, a body enclosure kit, defroster/de-icer, and snow chains. These kits were however frequently unavailable, so units took their own measures in the field, particularly improvising various body enclosures, to protect the crew from extreme weather. In addition, two companies fabricated snow-plows for the jeep. Geldhill Road Machinery Company made the 7T1NE plow, an angled single blade, while the JV5.5E was a V-shape design. The Wausau Iron Works built two similar designs, designated as the J and JB snowplows. Neither of these seem to have been commonly issued in combat. Photos of snowplows in use in the European theater mostly show improvised plows, likely adaptations of snowplows locally found at hand. [54]

Further development of the jeep Edit

Although no other light jeeps were taken into production, it was not for lack of trying. Both key military men, who had been championing the development of military vehicle concepts they had formulated for years – sometimes already since World War One – had led to conclusions about the logic of military mechanization, as well as automakers large and small, who now saw that in wartime, all of a sudden there were budgets available to work with. Of course, this was primarily true for the firms involved so far.

Lightweight jeeps Edit

Most of the competitors' models were more similar to standard jeeps, just lighter and smaller. Willys managed to reduce the weight on their 'MB-L' (MB Lightweight) to some 1,570 lb (710 kg) in 1943 and Army engineers were impressed by the Chevrolet and its advanced features: a single center spar frame, and an integrated gearbox and transfer case. [59] Kaiser created six 1,300–1,400-pound (590–640 kg) prototypes with a 42hp engine, but including some unfavorable design trade-offs.

Willys eventually produced even more radical designs. The Willys WAC (Willys Air Cooled) had three seats, built around a centrally mounted 24hp Harley Davidson engine, weighed only 1,050 lb (480 kg), but was noisy and not user-friendly. Still, it showed promise, and was further developed, eventually resulting in the Willys JBC, or 'Jungle Burden Carrier'. By early 1945 this had turned into a mere 561 lb (254 kg) motorized wheeled load-carrying platform, with a single seat, that preceded the 1950s Willys M274 'Mechanical Mule'. [59]

In Britain, Nuffield Mechanizations and Aero cut down a Willys MB in length and width, and stripped it for minimum weight, to serve airborne forces. The Airborne Forces Development Centre in Wiltshire oversaw an entire modification program for jeeps in airborne units, involving many modifications to reduce both weight and or size, including to wedge them into Horsa gliders, for operation Market Garden.

Antitank jeeps Edit

Late in the war, in 1945, the first large-caliber recoilless rifles became available, and the first jeep-mounted tests were performed, but they only came to fruition after World War II. One rare exception was Operation Varsity, for which two 75-mm. recoilless rifles were issued to the 17th U.S. Airborne Division, that could be mounted on their jeeps, proving useful in anti-tank fights. [60]

Rocket jeeps Edit

The jeep being too light to mount substantial guns, it was more suited later in the war, as a platform for rocket artillery, that didn't have the enormous recoil as conventional tube artillery. The California Institute of Technology developed two different 4.5in jeep-based rocket launcher systems for the U.S. Navy. Several other initiatives all used 4.5in rockets and tubes. Testing was also done by both U.S. Army and Marine Corps, but none of the jeep-mounted rocket launchers were built in any significant number, because it was more efficient to use larger trucks that could carry more rockets. The Soviet Red Army deployed twelve units fitted with 12-rail M8, 82mm rocket launchers in the bed of a jeep, from December 1944 in the Carpathian Mountains. [61]

Stretched and uprated jeeps Edit

Tracked jeeps Edit

Several tracked jeep prototypes were built, because of such a need in Alaska and Canada. After America had entered the war, a Japanese attack on the Aleutians made the Alaskan military base there suddenly a zone of great military importance. The snow-rich circumstances created a need for tracked, jeep-like, all-purpose vehicles, and the Canadian Bombardier company created the T29 jeep half-track out of one of the existing 6−6 Willys MT chassis. Due to Willys' workload, International Harvester helped assemble a further five T29E1 prototypes. Under the steering front wheels, skis could also be mounted. [68] An Aberdeen test report critiqued that the T-29E1 was difficult to steer, as the tracks could not be controlled independently, and that prolonged use caused excessive track component wear. The only known surviving half-track WWII jeep is named Willys T28 'Penguin'. Further (fully) tracked "jeeps" were also armored, and developed for, and by Canada — see section 'Armored jeeps'.

Armored jeeps Edit

Many jeeps received added armor in the field, especially in Europe in 1944–1945. Frequently, a rear slanting armor plate was added in front of the grille, and replacing the windshield, as well as the sides, in place of where doors would be. The upper, biggest part was typically made of a single, large, 5/16th inch steel plate, folded in three, with two different sight openings in the front.

Since reconnaissance was one of the jeep's primary purposes, there was a demand for some armor from the start of production. Starting April 1942, the second T14 GMC 6x6 Willys MT-Tug chassis was converted to the T24 Scout Car. Though performing well in trials, the T24 was abandoned in the autumn in favor of the M8 & M20 Light Armored Car. Concurrently, the Ordnance Corps was pushed to work on a lightly armored reconnaissance design, based on the standard Willys 4x4 jeep. Different armor configurations were tested on the T25 through T25E3 prototypes respectively. For all 4x4 armored jeeps, the significant weight increase reduced their payload, and adversely affected their mobility.

Canada went another step beyond, and created two small series of light, tracked, armed, armored vehicles using largely Jeep automotive components. In late 1942, the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND)’s Directorate of Vehicles and Artillery (DVA) began work at No.1 Proving Ground in Ottawa on a small tracked vehicle successively named: 'Bantam Armoured Tracked Vehicle', the 'Light Recce Tank', and finally: the 'Tracked Jeep', or Willys TJ. Main roles included: intercommunication (running messages over contested ground), armored reconnaissance, and engaging unarmored enemy troops in airborne and combined operations. [69] Willys and Marmon-Herrington were contracted for five more prototypes, Willys for power train components, and M.H. for hulls and running gear. The Tracked Jeep showed excellent cross-country performance over all terrain types, especially soft mud. Its up-hill mobility was deemed superior to all other light tracked utility vehicles, while its amphibious capability was adequate, despite its low freeboard. [69] There were however serious shortcomings with the running-gear and tracks. Work to fix this delayed testing until late 1944, and British insights demanded such fundamental changes, that a mk.2 version was developed, of which another six units were fabricated, and not ready until after the war had ended. The problems with tracks and running gear were still not sorted out, and development halted. America had observed the Canadian effort, but saw no advantages, compared to the M29 'Weasel' Tracked Cargo Carrier.

Flying jeep Edit

The most extreme concept tried was to turn the jeep into a rotor kite (or gyrokite), similar to an autogyro – the Hafner Rotabuggy (officially Malcolm Rotaplane). Designed by Raoul Hafner in 1942, and sponsored by the Airborne Forces Experimental Establishment (AFEE), after their Rotachute enjoyed some success, a passive rotor assembly was added over the jeep cabin, along with a lightweight tail, for stabilization. This jeep could be towed into the air by a transport or bomber tug. The Rotabuggy would then be towed to the drop zone as a rotary-wing glider. It took until autumn 1944 to achieve a decent test flight, and other military gliders, particularly the Waco Hadrian and Airspeed Horsa) made the Rotabuggy superfluous. Incidentally, it was first named the "Blitz Buggy", but that was soon dropped for "Rotabuggy".

Eugene the Jeep and prior usage of "jeep" Edit

According to some sources, the word "jeep" was used as early as World War I, both as U.S. Army slang for new, uninitiated recruits or other new personnel who still had to prove their mettle. It was also used by mechanics, to refer to any new prototypes or untested vehicles. [3] [72] Later, in mid-March 1936, a character called Eugene the Jeep was created in E. C. Segar's Popeye cartoons. [5] Eugene the Jeep was Popeye's "jungle pet" and was small, able to walk through walls and move between dimensions, and could go anywhere and solve seemingly impossible problems. [73] [74] The Eugene cartoon character brought new meaning to the Jeep name, diverging from the initial, somewhat pejorative meaning of the term, instead changing the slang to mean a capable person or thing. [75]

By 1940–1942, soldiers generally used "jeep" for half-ton or three-quarter-ton Dodge Command Reconnaissance cars, with the three-quarter-ton Command Cars sometimes called "beeps" (for "big Jeeps"), while the quarter-ton cars were called "peeps", "son of jeep", "baby jeep", or "quads" or "bantams". [3] [77] [78] A seven page article in Popular Science (Oct 1941) headlined introducing the quarter-ton as "Leaping Lena" – also one of the nicknames of the ubiquitous, same length Ford Model T – and further called it a buggy, or just a bug. [47] Originally, "peep" seemed a fitting name, because the quarter-ton was considered primarily a reconnaissance (peeping) car. [78]

Whether "jeep" was derived from "GP" Edit

One of the most frequently given explanations is that the designation "GP" was slurred into the word "Jeep", in the same way that the contemporary HMMWV (for "High-Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle") has become known as the 'Humvee' — either from the initial Ford model "GP" – or from the military 'G.P.', for "General Purpose" (vehicle).

Although prior existence of the term "jeep" dismisses this as an etymology in the strict sense, it may well have contributed to the marriage of the term with the WWII quarter-ton truck.

The latter 'GP'-based explanation (from the term "general purpose"), though this does appear in the TM9-803 Manual (page 10), [1] and the car is designated a "GP" in the TM9-2800 Manual — these were published in late 1943 and early 1944, and their influence on the jeep's name is dubious. One reason being: the jeep wasn't the only of the Quartermaster Corps' "general purpose" vehicles – so if this was the source, people would have nicknamed others "geeps" or "jeeps" as well, [86] as they did before.
More influential perhaps, was the 1943 short propaganda / documentary film The Autobiography of a 'Jeep', by the U.S. Office of War Information, in which the jeep itself literally propagates this origin story of its nickname. [87]

Willys-Overland's positions and promotion Edit

Joe Frazer, Willys-Overland President from 1939 to 1944, claimed to have coined the word jeep by slurring the initials G.P., [81] possibly related to Willys-Overland's 1946 copyright claim to the Jeep name. However, the company handling Willys' public relations in 1944 wrote that the jeep name probably came from the fact that the vehicle made quite an impression on soldiers at the time, so much so that they informally named it after the go-anywhere Eugene the Jeep. [85]

In early 1941, when the test cars went by names like BRC / "Blitz-Buggy", Ford Pygmy and such, Willys-Overland staged a press event in Washington, D.C., a publicity stunt and Senate photo opportunity demonstrating the car's off-road capability by driving it up and down the U.S. Capitol steps. Irving "Red" Hausmann, a test driver on the Willys development team who had accompanied the car for its testing at Camp Holabird, had heard soldiers there referring to it as a jeep. He was enlisted to go to the event and give a demonstration ride to a group of dignitaries, including Katherine Hillyer, a reporter for the Washington Daily News. When asked what it was, Hausmann said "it's a Jeep". Hausmann preferred "Jeep", to distinguish the Willys rig from the other funny-named quarter-tons at Camp Holabird. [77] Hillyer's syndicated article appeared in the newspaper on 20 February 1941, with a photo showing a jeep going up the Capitol steps and a caption including the term "jeep". This is believed to be the most likely origin of the term being fixed in public awareness. Even though Hausmann did not create or invent the word "Jeep", he likely contributed to its mainstream media usage indicating the quarter-ton vehicle.

Convergence from mixed origins and media coverage Edit

It is plausible that the origin was mixed and converged on "jeep" from multiple directions. Ford Motor Company pushed its Ford GP hard, to get the military contract, putting the term "GP" into use. Military officers and G.I.s involved in the procurement and testing of the car may have called it jeep from the WWI slang. Civilian contractors, engineers, and testers may have related it to Popeye's "Eugene the Jeep" character. People may have heard the same name from different directions, and as one person heard it from another, put their own understanding and explanation on it. [89] Overwhelming presence of the nickname 'jeep' in the public's opinion was probably the deciding factor. [75]

From 1941 on, a "constant flow of press and film publicity", [18] as well as Willys advertising as of 1942, proclaiming it had created and perfected the jeep, cemented the name "Jeep" in the civilian public's mind, [78] [17] even when "peep" was still used at many army camps, [18] and President Roosevelt spoke of the vital role the "peep" had to play in defending the shores of Fort Story, Virginia (04-1942).

One other particularly influential article may have been the January 1942 full review of the military's new wonder buggy in Scientific American, reprinted as "Meet the Jeep" in Reader's Digest, the best-selling consumer magazine of the day. [90] Author Jo Chamberlin was duly impressed by the "midget combat car" and wrote:

Our Army's youngest, smallest toughest baby has a dozen pet names such as jeep, peep, blitz-buggy, leaping Lena, panzer-killer. The names are all affectionate, for the jeep has made good. Only a year old, it stole the show in Louisiana. Now the Army plans to have 75,000 of them.

In a prescient footnote, Chamberlin wrote: "Some army men call the bantam a "peep", reserving "jeep" for the larger command car in which the brass hats ride. However, the term 'jeep' (born of GP, an auto manufacturing classification) is used by newspapers and most soldiers, and apparently will stick'". [91] [92]

Willys made its first 25,000 MB Jeeps with a welded flat iron "slat" radiator grille. It was Ford who first designed and implemented the now familiar and distinctive stamped, vertical-slot steel grille into its Jeep vehicles, which was lighter, used fewer resources, and was less costly to produce. [93] Along with many other design features innovated by Ford, this was adopted by Willys and implemented into the standard World War II Jeep by April 1942.

In order to be able to get their grille design trademarked, Willys gave their post-war jeeps a seven slot grille instead of the original Ford nine-slot design. [93] This applies both to Willys' "Civilian Jeeps", as well as the M38 and M38A1 military models. Through a series of corporate takeovers and mergers, AM General Corporation ended up with the rights to use the seven-slot grille as well, which they in turn extended to Chrysler when it acquired American Motors Corporation, then the manufacturer of Jeep, in 1987.

Ford design, stamped steel, nine-slot grille on a 1945 Willys MB

Seven-slot grille on the CJ-2A, Willys' first civilian Jeep

Due to Willys' trademark, Ford had to use a different design on their M151 U.S. jeep, opting for horizontal slots.

Through corporate history, the Humvee manufacturer AM General also had rights to fit the seven-slot grille.

The jeep inspired other manufacturers to copy the design — pictured a 1st generation Suzuki Jimny.

Within the U.S military, jeeps were used by every branch. In the U.S. Army, an average of 145 units were assigned to each infantry regiment. [95] Around the world, jeeps took part in every theater of war overseas — in Africa and the Pacific Theater, the Western Allied invasion of Europe in 1944, as well as the Eastern Front. Jeeps became so ubiquitous in the European battle theater that some German troops believed that each American soldier was issued their own jeep. [96] [nb 18]

In the North Africa deserts, the jeep's abilities so far surpassed those of British vehicles that it wasn't unusual for jeeps to rescue a three-ton truck stuck in the sand. In combat, the British would use their jeeps in groups of up to fifty or sixty to raid Rommel's lines by surprise, exploiting the jeep's low silhouette able to remain unseen, hide behind dunes, and surprise the enemy. [99]

Jeeps served as indefatigable pack horses for troop transport and towing supply trailers, carrying water, fuel, and ammo, and pulling through the most difficult terrain. They performed nimble scout and reconnaissance duty, were frequent ambulances for the wounded, and did hearse service. They also doubled as mobile field command headquarters or weapons platforms – either with mounted machine guns or pulling small artillery pieces into "unreachable" areas over inhospitable terrain. [13] The Jeep's flat hood was used as a commander's map table, a chaplain's field altar, the G.I.s' poker table, or even for field surgery. Some of them had a wire cutter as protection against taut-wire traps. Fitted with flanged steel wheels, they could pull railroad cars. [11] [12] [13]

Despite some shortcomings, the jeep was generally well-liked, seen as versatile, maneuverable, dependable, and almost indestructible. [12] The seats were found uncomfortable, sometimes caused the so-called "Jeep riders' disease" and cramped in the rear, but many soldiers enjoyed driving the nimble jeep, appreciating its powerful engine and with its light weight, low-cut body sides, bucket seats and manual floor-shifter, it was as close to a sportscar as most GIs had ever driven. [11] Enzo Ferrari famously called the Jeep "America's only real sports car." [96] Nazi generals admired the jeep more than any other U.S. materiel, and it was the vehicle the German soldiers most liked to capture for use. [100]

In the cauldron of war, the jeeps served every purpose imaginable: as a power plant, light source, improvised stove for field rations, or a hot water source for shaving. Hitched-up with the proper tools, it would plow snow, or dig long furrows for laying heavy electrical cable along jungle airfields – laid by another jeep following it. [13] Battle-hardened warriors learned to weld a roof-top height vertical cutter-bar to the front of their jeeps, to cut any trip wires tied across roads or trails by the Germans, placed to snap the necks of unsuspecting jeepers. [11] Pulitzer Prize–winning war journalist Ernie Pyle wrote: "It does everything. It goes everywhere. It's as faithful as a dog, as strong as a mule and as agile as a goat. It constantly carries twice what it was designed for, and still keeps on going." [6]

Anglo-Dutch troops used World War II jeeps in Batavia, Indonesia (1947).

Willys-Overland filed to trademark the "Jeep" name in 1943. [101] From 1945 onwards, Willys marketed its four-wheel drive vehicle to the public with its CJ (Civilian Jeep) versions, making these the world's first mass-produced 4WD civilian cars. Even before actual civilian purpose jeeps had been created, the 3 Jan 1944 issue of Life magazine featured a story titled: 'U.S. Civilians Buy Their First Jeeps'. A mayor from Kansas had bought a Ford GP in Chicago in 1943, and it performed invaluable work on his 2,000 acre farm. [102]

Already in 1942 industrial designer Brooks Stevens came up with an idea on how to make a civilian car called Victory Car on the Jeep chassis. [103] It never went into production, but Willys liked the idea and gave Brook Stevens notable design jobs, including the 1946 Willys Jeep Station Wagon, 1947 Willys Jeep Truck, and 1948 Jeepster, as well as the 1963–1993 Jeep Wagoneer. [104]

In 1948, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission agreed with American Bantam that the idea of creating the Jeep was originated and developed by the American Bantam in collaboration with the U.S. Army as well as Ford and Spicer. [105] The commission forbade Willys from claiming, directly or by implication, that it had created or designed the Jeep, and allowed it only to claim that it contributed to the development of the vehicle. [72] [15] The trademark lawsuit initiated and won by Bantam was a hollow victory: American Bantam went bankrupt by 1950 and Willys was granted the "Jeep" trademark the same year. [105] [106]

The first CJs were essentially the same as the MB, except for such alterations as vacuum-powered windshield wipers, a tailgate (and therefore a side-mounted spare tire), and civilian lighting. Also, the civilian jeeps had amenities like naugahyde seats, chrome trim, and were available in a variety of colors. Mechanically, a heftier T-90 transmission replaced the Willys MB's T84 in order to appeal to the originally considered rural buyer demographic.

In Britain, Rover were also inspired to build their own, very jeep-like vehicle. Their first testing prototype was actually built on the chassis of a war-surplus jeep, on the Welsh farm of then Rover chief engineer Maurice Wilks and by his older brother, managing director Spencer Wilks. Production of their "Land Rover" started after its presentation model was well-received at the first post-war Amsterdam International Auto show or 'AutoRAI' in 1948. [13]

Willys-Overland and its successors, Willys Motors and Kaiser Jeep continued to supply the U.S. military, as well as many allied nations with military jeeps through the late 1960s. In 1950, the first post-war military jeep, the M38 (or MC), was launched, based on the 1949 CJ‑3A. In 1953, it was quickly followed by the M38A1 (or MD), featuring an all-new "round-fendered" body in order to clear the also new, taller, Willys Hurricane engine. This jeep was later developed into the civilian CJ-5 launched in 1955. Similarly, its ambulance version, the M170 (or MDA), featuring a 20-inch wheelbase stretch, was later turned into the civilian CJ-6 .

Before the CJ-5, Willys offered the public a cheaper alternative with the taller F-head, overhead-valve engine, in the form of the 1953 CJ-3B , simply using a CJ-3A body with a taller hood. This was quickly turned into the M606 jeep (mostly used for export, through 1968) by equipping it with the available heavy-duty options such as larger tires and springs, and by adding black-out lighting, olive drab paint, and a trailer hitch. After 1968, M606A2 and -A3 versions of the CJ-5 were created in a similar way for friendly foreign governments. [nb 19]

In 1976, after more than two decades, Jeep complemented the CJ-5 with a new CJ model, the CJ-7 . Though still a direct evolution of the round-fendered CJ‑5, it had a 10 in (25 cm) longer wheelbase. And, for the first time, a CJ had doors, as well as an available hardtop. Since then, new evolutions were derived from the CJ-7 – from 1987 onwards as Jeep "Wranglers". Nevertheless, these are considered direct descendants of the WWII jeep. [107] The 2018 Wranglers still have a separate, open-topped body and ladder-frame, solid live axles front and rear, with part-time four-wheel drive, and high and low gearing. The compact body retains the Jeep grille and profile, and can even still be driven with the doors off and the windshield folded forward.

Licenses to produce jeeps, especially for CJ-3Bs, were issued to manufacturers in many different countries, starting almost straight after WWII, with the Willys MB pattern. Some firms, like Mahindra and Mahindra Limited in India, continue to produce them in some form or another to this day. Chinkara Motors of India produces the Jeepster, [108] with FRP body. The Jeepster can be delivered a diesel engine or the 1.8L Isuzu petrol. [109]

In France, the army used Hotchkiss M201 jeeps – essentially licensed Willys MBs, and in the former Yugoslavia, the arms manufacturer Zastava rebooted their car building branch, making 162 Willys jeeps. In Japan, Mitsubishi's first jeeps were versions of the CJ-3B , and in 1950 Toyota Motors was given an order by U.S. forces to build a vehicle to Jeep specifications, resulting in Toyota's BJ and FJ series of utility vehicles, slightly bigger and more powerful jeep-type vehicles. [13] After the CJ-3B, several countries also built the Willys MD / M38A1 under license. For instance, the Dutch built some 8,000 "NEKAF" jeeps, which remained in service for some 40 years. In Israel, AIL continues building military derivatives of Jeep Wrangler models for the Israeli Security Forces, ongoing since 1991. Their current AIL Storm III models are based on Africa Automotive Distribution Services Limited (AADS) of Gibraltar's Jeep J8 model.

The compact military jeep continued to be used in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. In Korea, it was mostly deployed in the form of the MB, as well as the M38 and M38A1 (introduced in 1952 and 1953), its direct descendants. In Vietnam, the most used jeep was the then newly designed Ford M151, which featured such state-of-the-art technologies as a unibody construction and all-around independent suspension with coil-springs. The M151 jeep remained in U.S. military service into the 1990s, and many other countries still use small, jeep-like vehicles in their militaries.

Apart from the mainstream of — by today's standards — relatively small jeeps, an even smaller vehicle was developed for the U.S. Marine Corps, suitable for helicopter airlifting and manhandling, the M422 "Mighty Mite". [ check quotation syntax ] Eventually, the U.S. military decided on a fundamentally different concept, choosing a much larger vehicle that not only took over the role of the jeep, but also replaced all its other light wheeled vehicles: the HMMWV ("Humvee"). [nb 20]

In 1991, the Willys-Overland Jeep MB was designated an International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. [14]


Practice Implications

Though the literature in this area lacks generalizability, there are a number of important implications that can be drawn. First, the enormous variability in the documentation and care planning practices exposed in this literature is a serious problem in and of itself. Given patients typically receive care from a variety of points across the health care system, moving from place to place where record content and format is variable, renders current medical records virtually useless in supporting patient-centric care in day-to-day practice. Moreover, information about a patient, once recorded, is either not accessible or—if available—is often in an unstandardized format (e.g., clinicians’ own words), resulting in countless errors of omission, misinterpretation, and redundancies in care. So too, most care planning methods are considered to bring little value and suffer from the same problems of poor design, poor accessibility, and no standardization. The lack of utility of the medical record in day-to-day practice begs the moral issue of whether the cost of maintaining the record in its current form (approximately 15 percent of a nurse’s time) is justified. The dollars spent on maintaining the 𠇋roken medical record” would bring more value if shifted to fund developing and refining industrywide solutions to repair the broken record. Further, the literature suggests that to compensate for poor record keeping systems, clinicians develop individualized shadow methods (scraps, also not standardized) to assist with organizing what each believes to be key information needed to carry out patient care. Since these information practices are nurse-centric and therefore variable, shadow methods further impede the flow and easy accessibility of patient information that promotes care continuity, quality, and safety.

Finally, there are valid instances of successful education interventions that improve aspects of documentation and care. The examples, however, are all locally focused and consequently also do little to fix the broken medical record. We see the broken record as a serious and costly problem to the health care industry and one that deserves a patient-centric industrywide solution. There were no studies of industrywide solutions noted in the literature. Until there is a true commitment to developing and refining industry-wide solutions that ensure accurate and comprehensive documentation, facilitating patient-centric care, the improvements that are possible in the areas of safety, cost, quality, and continuity will not be fully realized.


Subpart 2.1 - Definitions

2.101 Definitions.

(a) A word or a term, defined in this section, has the same meaning throughout this regulation (48 CFR chapter 1), unless-

(1) The context in which the word or term is used clearly requires a different meaning or

(2) Another FAR part, subpart, or section provides a different definition for the particular part or portion of the part.

(b) If a word or term that is defined in this section is defined differently in another part, subpart, or section of this regulation (48 CFR chapter 1), the definition in—

(1) This section includes a cross-reference to the other definitions and

(2) That part, subpart, or section applies to the word or term when used in that part, subpart, or section.

Acquisition means the acquiring by contract with appropriated funds of supplies or services (including construction) by and for the use of the Federal Government through purchase or lease, whether the supplies or services are already in existence or must be created, developed, demonstrated, and evaluated. Acquisition begins at the point when agency needs are established and includes the description of requirements to satisfy agency needs, solicitation and selection of sources, award of contracts, contract financing, contract performance, contract administration, and those technical and management functions directly related to the process of fulfilling agency needs by contract.

Acquisition planning means the process by which the efforts of all personnel responsible for an acquisition are coordinated and integrated through a comprehensive plan for fulfilling the agency need in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost. It includes developing the overall strategy for managing the acquisition.

Activity Address Code (AAC) means a distinct six-position code consisting of a combination of alpha and/or numeric characters assigned to identify specific agency offices, units, activities, or organizations by the General Services Administration for civilian agencies and by the Department of Defense for defense agencies.

Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred.

Advisory and assistance services means those services provided under contract by nongovernmental sources to support or improve: organizational policy development decision-making management and administration program and/or project management and administration or R&D activities. It can also mean the furnishing of professional advice or assistance rendered to improve the effectiveness of Federal management processes or procedures (including those of an engineering and technical nature). In rendering the foregoing services, outputs may take the form of information, advice, opinions, alternatives, analyses, evaluations, recommendations, training and the day-to-day aid of support personnel needed for the successful performance of ongoing Federal operations. All advisory and assistance services are classified in one of the following definitional subdivisions:

(1) Management and professional support services, i.e., contractual services that provide assistance, advice or training for the efficient and effective management and operation of organizations, activities (including management and support services for R&D activities), or systems. These services are normally closely related to the basic responsibilities and mission of the agency originating the requirement for the acquisition of services by contract. Included are efforts that support or contribute to improved organization of program management, logistics management, project monitoring and reporting, data collection, budgeting, accounting, performance auditing, and administrative technical support for conferences and training programs.

(2) Studies, analyses and evaluations, i.e., contracted services that provide organized, analytical assessments/evaluations in support of policy development, decision-making, management, or administration. Included are studies in support of R&D activities. Also included are acquisitions of models, methodologies, and related software supporting studies, analyses or evaluations.

(3) Engineering and technical services, i.e., contractual services used to support the program office during the acquisition cycle by providing such services as systems engineering and technical direction (see 9.505-1(b)) to ensure the effective operation and maintenance of a weapon system or major system as defined in OMB Circular No.A-109 or to provide direct support of a weapon system that is essential to research, development, production, operation or maintenance of the system.

Affiliates means associated business concerns or individuals if, directly or indirectly either one controls or can control the other or third party controls or can control both, except as follows:

(1) For use in subpart 9.4 , see the definition at 9.403.

(2) For use of affiliates in size determinations, see the definition of "small business concern" in this section.

Agency head or "head of the agency" means the Secretary, Attorney General, Administrator, Governor, Chairperson, or other chief official of an executive agency, unless otherwise indicated, including any deputy or assistant chief official of an executive agency.

Alternate means a substantive variation of a basic provision or clause prescribed for use in a defined circumstance. It adds wording to, deletes wording from, or substitutes specified wording for a portion of the basic provision or clause. The alternate version of a provision or clause is the basic provision or clause as changed by the addition, deletion, or substitution (see 52.105(a)).

Architect-engineer services, as defined in 40 U.S.C. 1102, means—

(1) Professional services of an architectural or engineering nature, as defined by State law, if applicable, that are required to be performed or approved by a person licensed, registered, or certified to provide those services

(2) Professional services of an architectural or engineering nature performed by contract that are associated with research, planning, development, design, construction, alteration, or repair of real property and

(3) Those other professional services of an architectural or engineering nature, or incidental services, that members of the architectural and engineering professions (and individuals in their employ) may logically or justifiably perform, including studies, investigations, surveying and mapping, tests, evaluations, consultations, comprehensive planning, program management, conceptual designs, plans and specifications, value engineering, construction phase services, soils engineering, drawing reviews, preparation of operating and maintenance manuals, and other related services.

Assignment of claims means the transfer or making over by the contractor to a bank, trust company, or other financing institution, as security for a loan to the contractor, of its right to be paid by the Government for contract performance.

Assisted acquisition means a type of interagency acquisition where a servicing agency performs acquisition activities on a requesting agency's behalf, such as awarding and administering a contract, task order, or delivery order.

Basic research means that research directed toward increasing knowledge in science. The primary aim of basic research is a fuller knowledge or understanding of the subject under study, rather than any practical application of that knowledge.

Best value means the expected outcome of an acquisition that, in the Government's estimation, provides the greatest overall benefit in response to the requirement.

Bid sample means a product sample required to be submitted by an offeror to show characteristics of the offered products that cannot adequately be described by specifications, purchase descriptions, or the solicitation (e.g., balance, facility of use, or pattern).

Biobased product means a product determined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products, including renewable domestic agricultural materials and forestry materials.

Broad agency announcement means a general announcement of an agency’s research interest including criteria for selecting proposals and soliciting the participation of all offerors capable of satisfying the Government’s needs (see 6.102(d)(2)).

Building or work means construction activity as distinguished from manufacturing, furnishing of materials, or servicing and maintenance work. The terms include, without limitation, buildings, structures, and improvements of all types, such as bridges, dams, plants, highways, parkways, streets, subways, tunnels, sewers, mains, power lines, pumping stations, heavy generators, railways, airports, terminals, docks, piers, wharves, ways, lighthouses, buoys, jetties, breakwaters, levees, canals, dredging, shoring, rehabilitation and reactivation of plants, scaffolding, drilling, blasting, excavating, clearing, and landscaping. The manufacture or furnishing of materials, articles, supplies, or equipment (whether or not a Federal or State agency acquires title to such materials, articles, supplies, or equipment during the course of the manufacture or furnishing, or owns the materials from which they are manufactured or furnished) is not "building" or "work" within the meaning of this definition unless conducted in connection with and at the site of such building or work as is described in the foregoing sentence, or under the United States Housing Act of 1937 and the Housing Act of 1949 in the construction or development of the project.

(1) Means a subset of consolidation that combines two or more requirements for supplies or services, previously provided or performed under separate smaller contracts (see paragraph (2) of this definition), into a solicitation for a single contract, a multiple-award contract, or a task or delivery order that is likely to be unsuitable for award to a small business concern (even if it is suitable for award to a small business with a Small Business Teaming Arrangement) due to—

(i) The diversity, size, or specialized nature of the elements of the performance specified

(ii) The aggregate dollar value of the anticipated award

(iii) The geographical dispersion of the contract performance sites or

(iv) Any combination of the factors described in paragraphs (1)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this definition.

(2) "Separate smaller contract" as used in this definition, means a contract that has been performed by one or more small business concerns or that was suitable for award to one or more small business concerns.

(3) This definition does not apply to a contract that will be awarded and performed entirely outside of the United States.

Business unit means any segment of an organization, or an entire business organization that is not divided into segments.

Certified cost or pricing data means "cost or pricing data" that were required to be submitted in accordance with FAR 15.403-4 and 15.403-5 and have been certified, or is required to be certified, in accordance with 15.406-2. This certification states that, to the best of the person’s knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data is accurate, complete, and current as of a date certain before contract award. Cost or pricing data is required to be certified in certain procurements (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. chapter 35).

Change-of-name agreement means a legal instrument executed by the contractor and the Government that recognizes the legal change of name of the contractor without disturbing the original contractual rights and obligations of the parties.

Change order means a written order, signed by the contracting officer, directing the contractor to make a change that the Changes clause authorizes the contracting officer to order without the contractor’s consent.

Chief Acquisition Officer means an executive level acquisition official responsible for agency performance of acquisition activities and acquisition programs created pursuant to 41 U.S.C. 1702.

Chief of mission means the principal officer in charge of a diplomatic mission of the United States or of a United States office abroad which is designated by the Secretary of State as diplomatic in nature, including any individual assigned under section 502(c) of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-465) to be temporarily in charge of such a mission or office.

Claim means a written demand or written assertion by one of the contracting parties seeking, as a matter of right, the payment of money in a sum certain, the adjustment or interpretation of contract terms, or other relief arising under or relating to the contract. However, a written demand or written assertion by the contractor seeking the payment of money exceeding $100,000 is not a claim under 41 U.S.C. chapter 71, Contract Disputes, until certified as required by the statute. A voucher, invoice, or other routine request for payment that is not in dispute when submitted is not a claim. The submission may be converted to a claim, by written notice to the contracting officer as provided in 33.206(a), if it is disputed either as to liability or amount or is not acted upon in a reasonable time.

Classified acquisition means an acquisition in which offerors must have access to classified information to properly submit an offer or quotation, to understand the performance requirements, or to perform the contract.

Classified contract means any contract in which the contractor or its employees must have access to classified information during contract performance. A contract may be a classified contract even though the contract document itself is unclassified.

Classified information means any knowledge that can be communicated or any documentary material, regardless of its physical form or characteristics, that—

(i) Is owned by, is produced by or for, or is under the control of the United States Government or

(ii) Has been classified by the Department of Energy as privately generated restricted data following the procedures in 10 CFR 1045.21 and

(2) Must be protected against unauthorized disclosure according to Executive Order12958, Classified National Security Information, April 7,1995, or classified in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

Cognizant Federal agency means the Federal agency that, on behalf of all Federal agencies, is responsible for establishing final indirect cost rates and forward pricing rates, if applicable, and administering cost accounting standards for all contracts in a business unit.

Combatant commander means the commander of a unified or specified combatant command established in accordance with 10 U.S.C. 161.

Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code means—

(1) An identifier assigned to entities located in the United States or its outlying areas by the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Branch to identify a commercial or government entity by unique location or

(2) An identifier assigned by a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or by the NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) to entities located outside the United States and its outlying areas that the DLA Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Branch records and maintains in the CAGE master file. This type of code is known as a NATO CAGE (NCAGE) code.

Commercial component means any component that is a commercial item.

Commercial computer software means any computer software that is a commercial item.

(1) Any item, other than real property, that is of a type customarily used by the general public or by non-governmental entities for purposes other than governmental purposes, and-

(i) Has been sold, leased, or licensed to the general public or

(ii) Has been offered for sale, lease, or license to the general public

(2) Any item that evolved from an item described in paragraph (1) of this definition through advances in technology or performance and that is not yet available in the commercial marketplace, but will be available in the commercial marketplace in time to satisfy the delivery requirements under a Government solicitation

(3) Any item that would satisfy a criterion expressed in paragraphs(1) or (2) of this definition, but for-

(i) Modifications of a type customarily available in the commercial marketplace or

(ii) Minor modifications of a type not customarily available in the commercial marketplace made to meet Federal Government requirements. Minor modifications means modifications that do not significantly alter the nongovernmental function or essential physical characteristics of an item or component, or change the purpose of a process. Factors to be considered in determining whether a modification is minor include the value and size of the modification and the comparative value and size of the final product. Dollar values and percentages may be used as guideposts, but are not conclusive evidence that a modification is minor

(4) Any combination of items meeting the requirements of paragraphs(1), (2), (3), or (5) of this definition that are of a type customarily combined and sold in combination to the general public

(5) Installation services, maintenance services, repair services, training services, and other services if-

(i) Such services are procured for support of an item referred to in paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of this definition, regardless of whether such services are provided by the same source or at the same time as the item and

(ii) The source of such services provides similar services contemporaneously to the general public under terms and conditions similar to those offered to the Federal Government

(6) Services of a type offered and sold competitively in substantial quantities in the commercial marketplace based on established catalog or market prices for specific tasks performed or specific outcomes to be achieved and under standard commercial terms and conditions. For purposes of these services-

(i) "Catalog price" means a price included in a catalog, price list, schedule, or other form that is regularly maintained by the manufacturer or vendor, is either published or otherwise available for inspection by customers, and states prices at which sales are currently, or were last, made to a significant number of buyers constituting the general public and

(ii) "Market prices" means current prices that are established in the course of ordinary trade between buyers and sellers free to bargain and that can be substantiated through competition or from sources independent of the offerors.

(7) Any item, combination of items, or service referred to in paragraphs(1) through (6) of this definition, notwithstanding the fact that the item, combination of items, or service is transferred between or among separate divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or

(8) A nondevelopmental item, if the procuring agency determines the item was developed exclusively at private expense and sold in substantial quantities, on a competitive basis, to multiple State and local governments or to multiple foreign governments.

Commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) item—

(1) Means any item of supply (including construction material) that is–

(i) A commercial item (as defined in paragraph (1) of the definition in this section)

(ii) Sold in substantial quantities in the commercial marketplace and

(iii) Offered to the Government, under a contract or subcontract at any tier, without modification, in the same form in which it is sold in the commercial marketplace and

(2) Does not include bulk cargo, as defined in 46 U.S.C. 40102(4), such as agricultural products and petroleum products.

Common item means material that is common to the applicable Government contract and the contractor's other work, except that for use in the clause at 52.246-26, see the definition in paragraph (a) of that clause.

Component means any item supplied to the Government as part of an end item or of another component, except that for use in—

(1) part 25, see the definition in 25.003

(2) 52.225-1 and 52.225-3, see the definition in 52.225-1(a) and 52.225-3(a)

(3) 52.225-9 and 52.225-11, see the definition in 52.225-9(a) and 52.225-11(a) and

Computer database or "database" means a collection of recorded information in a form capable of, and for the purpose of, being stored in, processed, and operated on by a computer. The term does not include computer software.

(i) Computer programs that comprise a series of instructions, rules, routines, or statements, regardless of the media in which recorded, that allow or cause a computer to perform a specific operation or series of operations and

(ii) Recorded information comprising source code listings, design details, algorithms, processes, flow charts, formulas, and related material that would enable the computer program to be produced, created, or compiled.

(2) Does not include computer databases or computer software documentation.

Computer software documentation means owner’s manuals, user’s manuals, installation instructions, operating instructions, and other similar items, regardless of storage medium, that explain the capabilities of the computer software or provide instructions for using the software.

Consent to subcontract means the contracting officer’s written consent for the prime contractor to enter into a particular subcontract.

Consolidation or consolidated requirement

(1) Means a solicitation for a single contract, a multiple-award contract, a task order, or a delivery order to satisfy-

(i) Two or more requirements of the Federal agency for supplies or services that have been provided to or performed for the Federal agency under two or more separate contracts, each of which was lower in cost than the total cost of the contract for which offers are solicited or

(ii) Requirements of the Federal agency for construction projects to be performed at two or more discrete sites.

(2) "Separate contract" as used in this definition, means a contract that has been performed by any business, including small and other than small business concerns.

Construction means construction, alteration, or repair (including dredging, excavating, and painting) of buildings, structures, or other real property. For purposes of this definition, the terms "buildings, structures, or other real property" include, but are not limited to, improvements of all types, such as bridges, dams, plants, highways, parkways, streets, subways, tunnels, sewers, mains, power lines, cemeteries, pumping stations, railways, airport facilities, terminals, docks, piers, wharves, ways, lighthouses, buoys, jetties, breakwaters, levees, canals, and channels. Construction does not include the manufacture, production, furnishing, construction, alteration, repair, processing, or assembling of vessels, aircraft, or other kinds of personal property (except that for use in subpart 22.5, see the definition at 22.502).

Contiguous United States (CONUS) means the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia.

Contingency operation (10 U.S.C.101(a)(13)) means a military operation that-

(1) Is designated by the Secretary of Defense as an operation in which members of the armed forces are or may become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities against an enemy of the United States or against an opposing military force or

(2) Results in the call or order to, or retention on, active duty of members of the uniformed services under sections 688, 12301(a), 12302, 12304, 12304(a), 12305, or 12406 of title 10 of the United States Code, Chapter 15 of title 10 of the United States Code, or any other provision of law during a war or during a national emergency declared by the President or Congress.

Continued portion of the contract means the portion of a contract that the contractor must continue to perform following a partial termination.

Contract means a mutually binding legal relationship obligating the seller to furnish the supplies or services (including construction) and the buyer to pay for them. It includes all types of commitments that obligate the Government to an expenditure of appropriated funds and that, except as otherwise authorized, are in writing. In addition to bilateral instruments, contracts include (but are not limited to) awards and notices of awards job orders or task letters issued under basic ordering agreements letter contracts orders, such as purchase orders, under which the contract becomes effective by written acceptance or performance and bilateral contract modifications. Contracts do not include grants and cooperative agreements covered by 31 U.S.C.6301, et seq. For discussion of various types of contracts, see part 16.

Contract administration office means an office that performs-

(1) Assigned postaward functions related to the administration of contracts and

(2) Assigned preaward functions.

Contract clause or "clause" means a term or condition used in contracts or in both solicitations and contracts, and applying after contract award or both before and after award.

Contract modification means any written change in the terms of a contract (see 43.103).

Contracting means purchasing, renting, leasing, or otherwise obtaining supplies or services from nonfederal sources. Contracting includes description (but not determination) of supplies and services required, selection and solicitation of sources, preparation and award of contracts, and all phases of contract administration. It does not include making grants or cooperative agreements.

Contracting activity means an element of an agency designated by the agency head and delegated broad authority regarding acquisition functions.

Contracting office means an office that awards or executes a contract for supplies or services and performs postaward functions not assigned to a contract administration office (except for use in part 48, see also 48.001).

Contracting officer means a person with the authority to enter into, administer, and/or terminate contracts and make related determinations and findings. The term includes certain authorized representatives of the contracting officer acting within the limits of their authority as delegated by the contracting officer. "Administrative contracting officer (ACO)" refers to a contracting officer who is administering contracts. "Termination contracting officer (TCO)" refers to a contracting officer who is settling terminated contracts. A single contracting officer may be responsible for duties in any or all of these areas. Reference in this regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) to administrative contracting officer or termination contracting officer does not-

(1) Require that a duty be performed at a particular office or activity or

(2) Restrict in any way a contracting officer in the performance of any duty properly assigned.

Contracting officer’s representative (COR) means an individual, including a contracting officer’s technical representative (COTR), designated and authorized in writing by the contracting officer to perform specific technical or administrative functions.

Conviction means a judgment or conviction of a criminal offense by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether entered upon a verdict or a plea, and includes a conviction entered upon a plea of nolo contendere. For use in subpart 23.5, see the definition at 23.503.

Cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C.2306a(h)(1) and 41 U.S.C. chapter 35) means all facts that, as of the date of price agreement, or, if applicable, an earlier date agreed upon between the parties that is as close as practicable to the date of agreement on price, prudent buyers and sellers would reasonably expect to affect price negotiations significantly. Cost or pricing data are factual, not judgmental and are verifiable. While they do not indicate the accuracy of the prospective contractor’s judgment about estimated future costs or projections, they do include the data forming the basis for that judgment. Cost or pricing data are more than historical accounting data they are all the facts that can be reasonably expected to contribute to the soundness of estimates of future costs and to the validity of determinations of costs already incurred. They also include, but are not limited to, such factors as-

(3) Information on changes in production methods and in production or purchasing volume

(4) Data supporting projections of business prospects and objectives and related operations costs

(5) Unit-cost trends such as those associated with labor efficiency

(7) Estimated resources to attain business goals and

(8) Information on management decisions that could have a significant bearing on costs.

Cost realism means that the costs in an offeror’s proposal-

(1) Are realistic for the work to be performed

(2) Reflect a clear understanding of the requirements and

(3) Are consistent with the various elements of the offeror’s technical proposal.

Cost sharing means an explicit arrangement under which the contractor bears some of the burden of reasonable, allocable, and allowable contract cost.

Customs territory of the United States means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

Data other than certified cost or pricing data means pricing data, cost data, and judgmental information necessary for the contracting officer to determine a fair and reasonable price or to determine cost realism. Such data may include the identical types of data as certified cost or pricing data, consistent with Table 15-2 of 15.408, but without the certification. The data may also include, for example, sales data and any information reasonably required to explain the offeror’s estimating process, including, but not limited to–

(1) The judgmental factors applied and the mathematical or other methods used in the estimate, including those used in projecting from known data and

(2) The nature and amount of any contingencies included in the proposed price.

Day means, unless otherwise specified, a calendar day.

Debarment means action taken by a debarring official under 9.406 to exclude a contractor from Government contracting and Government-approved subcontracting for a reasonable, specified period a contractor that is excluded is "debarred."

Delivery order means an order for supplies placed against an established contract or with Government sources.

Depreciation means a charge to current operations that distributes the cost of a tangible capital asset, less estimated residual value, over the estimated useful life of the asset in a systematic and logical manner. It does not involve a process of valuation. Useful life refers to the prospective period of economic usefulness in a particular contractor’s operations as distinguished from physical life it is evidenced by the actual or estimated retirement and replacement practice of the contractor.

Descriptive literature means information provided by an offeror, such as cuts, illustrations, drawings, and brochures, that shows a product’s characteristics or construction of a product or explains its operation. The term includes only that information needed to evaluate the acceptability of the product and excludes other information for operating or maintaining the product.

Design-to-cost means a concept that establishes cost elements as management goals to achieve the best balance between life-cycle cost, acceptable performance, and schedule. Under this concept, cost is a design constraint during the design and development phases and a management discipline throughout the acquisition and operation of the system or equipment.

Designated operational area means a geographic area designated by the combatant commander or subordinate joint force commander for the conduct or support of specified military operations.

Direct acquisition means a type of interagency acquisition where a requesting agency places an order directly against a servicing agency’s indefinite-delivery contract. The servicing agency manages the indefinite-delivery contract but does not participate in the placement or administration of an order.

Direct cost means any cost that is identified specifically with a particular final cost objective. Direct costs are not limited to items that are incorporated in the end product as material or labor. Costs identified specifically with a contract are direct costs of that contract. All costs identified specifically with other final cost objectives of the contractor are direct costs of those cost objectives.

Disaster Response Registry means a voluntary registry of contractors who are willing to perform debris removal, distribution of supplies, reconstruction, and other disaster or emergency relief activities established in accordance with 6 U.S.C. 796, Registry of Disaster Response Contractors. The Registry contains information on contractors who are willing to perform disaster or emergency relief activities within the United States and its outlying areas. The Registry is accessed via the Internet at https://www.sam.gov, Search Records, Advanced Search, Disaster Response Registry Search. (See 26.205.)

Drug-free workplace means the site(s) for the performance of work done by the contractor in connection with a specific contract where employees of the contractor are prohibited from engaging in the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensing, possession, or use of a controlled substance.

Earned value management system means a project management tool that effectively integrates the project scope of work with cost, schedule and performance elements for optimum project planning and control. The qualities and operating characteristics of an earned value management system are described in Electronic Industries Alliance Standard 748 (EIA-748), Earned Value Management Systems. (See OMB Circular A-11, part 7.)

Economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern-(see definition of "Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program" in this section).

Effective date of termination means the date on which the notice of termination requires the contractor to stop performance under the contract. If the contractor receives the termination notice after the date fixed for termination, then the effective date of termination means the date the contractor receives the notice.

Electronic and information technology (EIT) has the same meaning as "information technology" except EIT also includes any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment that is used in the creation, conversion, or duplication of data or information. The term EIT, includes, but is not limited to, telecommunication products (such as telephones), information kiosks and transaction machines, worldwide websites, multimedia, and office equipment (such as copiers and fax machines).

Electronic commerce means electronic techniques for accomplishing business transactions including electronic mail or messaging, World Wide Web technology, electronic bulletin boards, purchase cards, electronic funds transfer, and electronic data interchange.

Electronic data interchange (EDI) means a technique for electronically transferring and storing formatted information between computers utilizing established and published formats and codes, as authorized by the applicable Federal Information Processing Standards.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) means any transfer of funds, other than a transaction originated by cash, check, or similar paper instrument, that is initiated through an electronic terminal, telephone, computer, or magnetic tape, for the purpose of ordering, instructing, or authorizing a financial institution to debit or credit an account. The term includes Automated Clearing House transfers, Fedwire transfers, and transfers made at automatic teller machines and point-of-sale terminals. For purposes of compliance with 31 U.S.C.3332 and implementing regulations at 31 CFR part 208 , the term "electronic funds transfer" includes a Governmentwide commercial purchase card transaction.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) indicator means a four-character suffix to the unique entity identifier. The suffix is assigned at the discretion of the commercial, nonprofit, or Government entity to establish additional System for Award Management records for identifying alternative EFT accounts (see subpart 32.11) for the same entity.

"Emergency," as used in 6.208, 13.201, 13.500, 18.001, 18.202, 18.203, and subpart 26.2, means any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the President, Federal assistance is needed to supplement State and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States (42 U.S.C. 5122).

End product means supplies delivered under a line item of a Government contract, except for use in part 25 and the associated clauses at 52.225-1, 52.225-3, and 52.225-5, see the definitions in 25.003, 52.225-1(a), 52.225-3(a), and 52.225-5(a).

(i) Meets Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency criteria for use of the Energy Star trademark label or

(ii) Is in the upper 25 percent of efficiency for all similar products as designated by the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program.

(2) As used in this definition, the term "product" does not include any energy-consuming product or system designed or procured for combat or combat-related missions (42 U.S.C. 8259b).

Energy-efficient standby power devices means products that use-

(1) External standby power devices, or that contain an internal standby power function and

(2) No more than one watt of electricity in their standby power consuming mode or meet recommended low standby levels as designated by the Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program.

Energy-savings performance contract means a contract that requires the contractor to-

(1) Perform services for the design, acquisition, financing, installation, testing, operation, and where appropriate, maintenance and repair, of an identified energy conservation measure or series of measures at one or more locations

(2) Incur the costs of implementing the energy savings measures, including at least the cost (if any) incurred in making energy audits, acquiring and installing equipment, and training personnel in exchange for a predetermined share of the value of the energy savings directly resulting from implementation of such measures during the term of the contract and

(3) Guarantee future energy and cost savings to the Government.

Environmentally preferable means products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. This comparison may consider raw materials acquisition, production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance, or disposal of the product or service.

Excess personal property means any personal property under the control of a Federal agency that the agency head determines is not required for its needs or for the discharge of its responsibilities.

Executive agency means an executive department, a military department, or any independent establishment within the meaning of 5 U.S.C.101, 102, and 104(1), respectively, and any wholly owned Government corporation within the meaning of 31 U.S.C.9101.

Facilities capital cost of money means "cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital" as used at 48 CFR 9904.414 -Cost Accounting Standard-Cost of Money as an Element of the Cost of Facilities Capital.

Federal agency means any executive agency or any independent establishment in the legislative or judicial branch of the Government (except the Senate, the House of Representatives, the Architect of the Capitol, and any activities under the Architect’s direction).

Federally-controlled facilities means—

(1) Federally-owned buildings or leased space, whether for single or multi-tenant occupancy, and its grounds and approaches, all or any portion of which is under the jurisdiction, custody or control of a department or agency

(2) Federally-controlled commercial space shared with non-government tenants. For example, if a department or agency leased the 10th floor of a commercial building, the Directive applies to the 10th floor only

(3) Government-owned, contractor-operated facilities, including laboratories engaged in national defense research and production activities and

(4) Facilities under a management and operating contract, such as for the operation, maintenance, or support of a Government-owned or Government-controlled research, development, special production, or testing establishment.

Federally-controlled information system means an information system (44 U.S.C. 3502(8) used or operated by a Federal agency, or a contractor or other organization on behalf of the agency (44 U.S.C. 3544(a)(1)(A)).

Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDC’s) means activities that are sponsored under a broad charter by a Government agency (or agencies) for the purpose of performing, analyzing, integrating, supporting, and/or managing basic or applied research and/or development, and that receive 70 percent or more of their financial support from the Government and-

(1) A long-term relationship is contemplated

(2) Most or all of the facilities are owned or funded by the Government and

(3) The FFRDC has access to Government and supplier data, employees, and facilities beyond that common in a normal contractual relationship.

Final indirect cost rate means the indirect cost rate established and agreed upon by the Government and the contractor as not subject to change. It is usually established after the close of the contractor’s fiscal year (unless the parties decide upon a different period) to which it applies. For cost-reimbursement research and development contracts with educational institutions, it may be predetermined that is, established for a future period on the basis of cost experience with similar contracts, together with supporting data.

First article means a preproduction model, initial production sample, test sample, first lot, pilot lot, or pilot models.

First article testing means testing and evaluating the first article for conformance with specified contract requirements before or in the initial stage of production.

F.o.b. means free on board. This term is used in conjunction with a physical point to determine-

(1) The responsibility and basis for payment of freight charges and

(2) Unless otherwise agreed, the point where title for goods passes to the buyer or consignee.

F.o.b. destination means free on board at destination i.e., the seller or consignor delivers the goods on seller’s or consignor’s conveyance at destination. Unless the contract provides otherwise, the seller or consignor is responsible for the cost of shipping and risk of loss. For use in the clause at 52.247-34, see the definition at 52.247-34(a).

F.o.b. origin means free on board at origin i.e., the seller or consignor places the goods on the conveyance. Unless the contract provides otherwise, the buyer or consignee is responsible for the cost of shipping and risk of loss. For use in the clause at 52.247-29, see the definition at 52.247-29(a).

F.o.b. (For other types of F.o.b., see 47.303).

Forward pricing rate agreement means a written agreement negotiated between a contractor and the Government to make certain rates available during a specified period for use in pricing contracts or modifications. These rates represent reasonable projections of specific costs that are not easily estimated for, identified with, or generated by a specific contract, contract end item, or task. These projections may include rates for such things as labor, indirect costs, material obsolescence and usage, spare parts provisioning, and material handling.

Forward pricing rate recommendation means a rate set unilaterally by the administrative contracting officer for use by the Government in negotiations or other contract actions when forward pricing rate agreement negotiations have not been completed or when the contractor will not agree to a forward pricing rate agreement.

Freight means supplies, goods, and transportable property.

Full and open competition, when used with respect to a contract action, means that all responsible sources are permitted to compete.

General and administrative (G&A) expense means any management, financial, and other expense which is incurred by or allocated to a business unit and which is for the general management and administration of the business unit as a whole. G&A expense does not include those management expenses whose beneficial or causal relationship to cost objectives can be more directly measured by a base other than a cost input base representing the total activity of a business unit during a cost accounting period.

Global warming potential means how much a given mass of a chemical contributes to global warming over a given time period compared to the same mass of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide’s global warming potential is defined as 1.0.

Governmentwide acquisition contract (GWAC) means a task-order or delivery-order contract for information technology established by one agency for Governmentwide use that is operated-

(1) By an executive agent designated by the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to 40 U.S.C. 11302(e) or

(2) Under a delegation of procurement authority issued by the General Services Administration (GSA) prior to August 7,1996, under authority granted GSA by former section 40 U.S.C. 759, repealed by Pub. L. 104-106. The Economy Act does not apply to orders under a Governmentwide acquisition contract.

Governmentwide point of entry (GPE) means the single point where Government business opportunities greater than $25,000, including synopses of proposed contract actions, solicitations, and associated information, can be accessed electronically by the public. The GPE is located at www.fbo.gov.

Head of the agency (see "agency head").

Head of the contracting activity means the official who has overall responsibility for managing the contracting activity.

High global warming potential hydrofluorocarbons means any hydrofluorocarbons in a particular end use for which EPA’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program has identified other acceptable alternatives that have lower global warming potential. The SNAP list of alternatives is found at 40 CFR part 82 subpart G with supplemental tables of alternatives available at http://www.epa.gov/snap/).

Historically black college or university means an institution determined by the Secretary of Education to meet the requirements of 34 CFR 608.2 .

HUBZone means a historically underutilized business zone that is an area located within one or more qualified census tracts, qualified nonmetropolitan counties, lands within the external boundaries of an Indian reservation, qualified base closure areas, or redesignated areas, as defined in 13 CFR 126.103 .

HUBZone contract means a contract awarded to a Small Business Administration certified "HUBZone small business concern" through any of the following procurement methods:

(1) A sole source award to a HUBZone small business concern.

(2) Set-aside awards based on competition restricted to HUBZone small business concerns.

(3) Awards to HUBZone small business concerns through full and open competition after a price evaluation preference in favor of HUBZone small business concerns.

(4) Awards based on a reserve for HUBZone small business concerns in a solicitation for a multiple-award contract.

HUBZone small business concern means a small business concern, certified by the Small Business Administration (SBA), that appears on the List of Qualified HUBZone Small Business Concerns maintained by the SBA (13 CFR 126.103).

Humanitarian or peacekeeping operation means a military operation in support of the provision of humanitarian or foreign disaster assistance or in support of a peacekeeping operation under chapter VI or VII of the Charter of the United Nations. The term does not include routine training, force rotation, or stationing (10 U.S.C.2302(8) and 41 U.S.C. 153(2)).

Hydrofluorocarbons means compounds that contain only hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon.

In writing, "writing," or "written" means any worded or numbered expression that can be read, reproduced, and later communicated, and includes electronically transmitted and stored information.

Indirect cost means any cost not directly identified with a single final cost objective, but identified with two or more final cost objectives or with at least one intermediate cost objective.

Indirect cost rate means the percentage or dollar factor that expresses the ratio of indirect expense incurred in a given period to direct labor cost, manufacturing cost, or another appropriate base for the same period (see also "final indirect cost rate").

Ineligible means excluded from Government contracting (and subcontracting, if appropriate) pursuant to statutory, Executive order, or regulatory authority other than this regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) and its implementing and supplementing regulations for example, pursuant to–

(1) 40 U.S.C. chapter 31, subchapter IV, Wage Rate Requirements (Construction), and its related statutes and implementing regulations

(2) 41 U.S.C. chapter 67, Service Contract Labor Standards

(3) The Equal Employment Opportunity Acts and Executive orders

(4) 41 U.S.C. chapter 65, Contracts for Material, Supplies, Articles, and Equipment Exceeding $10,000

(6) The Environmental Protection Acts and Executive orders.

Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction in order to provide-

(1) Integrity, which means guarding against improper information modification or destruction, and includes ensuring information nonrepudiation and authenticity

(2) Confidentiality, which means preserving authorized restrictions on access and disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary information and

(3) Availability, which means ensuring timely and reliable access to, and use of, information.

Information technology means any equipment, or interconnected system(s) or subsystem(s) of equipment, that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, analysis, evaluation, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information by the agency.

(1) For purposes of this definition, equipment is used by an agency if the equipment is used by the agency directly or is used by a contractor under a contract with the agency that requires-

(ii) To a significant extent, its use in the performance of a service or the furnishing of a product.

(2) The term "information technology" includes computers, ancillary equipment (including imaging peripherals, input, output, and storage devices necessary for security and surveillance), peripheral equipment designed to be controlled by the central processing unit of a computer, software, firmware and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources.

(3) The term "information technology" does not include any equipment that-

(i) Is acquired by a contractor incidental to a contract or

(ii) Contains imbedded information technology that is used as an integral part of the product, but the principal function of which is not the acquisition, storage, analysis, evaluation, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information. For example, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) equipment, such as thermostats or temperature control devices, and medical equipment where information technology is integral to its operation, are not information technology.

Inherently governmental function means, as a matter of policy, a function that is so intimately related to the public interest as to mandate performance by Government employees. This definition is a policy determination, not a legal determination. An inherently governmental function includes activities that require either the exercise of discretion in applying Government authority, or the making of value judgments in making decisions for the Government. Governmental functions normally fall into two categories: the act of governing, i.e., the discretionary exercise of Government authority, and monetary transactions and entitlements.

(1) An inherently governmental function involves, among other things, the interpretation and execution of the laws of the United States so as to-

(i) Bind the United States to take or not to take some action by contract, policy, regulation, authorization, order, or otherwise

(ii) Determine, protect, and advance United States economic, political, territorial, property, or other interests by military or diplomatic action, civil or criminal judicial proceedings, contract management, or otherwise

(iii) Significantly affect the life, liberty, or property of private persons

(iv) Commission, appoint, direct, or control officers or employees of the United States or

(v) Exert ultimate control over the acquisition, use, or disposition of the property, real or personal, tangible or intangible, of the United States, including the collection, control, or disbursement of Federal funds.

(2) Inherently governmental functions do not normally include gathering information for or providing advice, opinions, recommendations, or ideas to Government officials. They also do not include functions that are primarily ministerial and internal in nature, such as building security, mail operations, operation of cafeterias, housekeeping, facilities operations and maintenance, warehouse operations, motor vehicle fleet management operations, or other routine electrical or mechanical services.

Inspection means examining and testing supplies or services (including, when appropriate, raw materials, components, and intermediate assemblies) to determine whether they conform to contract requirements.

Insurance means a contract that provides that for a stipulated consideration, one party undertakes to indemnify another against loss, damage, or liability arising from an unknown or contingent event.

Interagency acquisition means a procedure by which an agency needing supplies or services (the requesting agency) obtains them from another agency (the servicing agency), by an assisted acquisition or a direct acquisition. The term includes—

(1) Acquisitions under the Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) and

(2) Non-Economy Act acquisitions completed under other statutory authorities, (e.g., General Services Administration Federal Supply Schedules in subpart 8.4 and Governmentwide acquisition contracts (GWACs)).

Invoice means a contractor’s bill or written request for payment under the contract for supplies delivered or services performed (see also "proper invoice").

Irrevocable letter of credit means a written commitment by a federally insured financial institution to pay all or part of a stated amount of money, until the expiration date of the letter, upon the Government’s (the beneficiary) presentation of a written demand for payment. Neither the financial institution nor the offeror/contractor can revoke or condition the letter of credit.

Labor surplus area means a geographical area identified by the Department of Labor in accordance with 20 CFR part 654 , subpart A, as an area of concentrated unemployment or underemployment or an area of labor surplus.

Labor surplus area concern means a concern that together with its first-tier subcontractors will perform substantially in labor surplus areas. Performance is substantially in labor surplus areas if the costs incurred under the contract on account of manufacturing, production, or performance of appropriate services in labor surplus areas exceed 50 percent of the contract price.

Latent defect means a defect that exists at the time of acceptance but cannot be discovered by a reasonable inspection.

Line item means the basic structural element in a procurement instrument that describes and organizes the required product or service for pricing, delivery, inspection, acceptance, invoicing, and payment. The use of the term "line item" includes "subline item," as applicable.

Line item number means either a numeric or alphanumeric format to identify a line item.

Major disaster, as used in 6.208, 13.201, 13.500, 18.001, 18.202, 18.203, and subpart 26.2, means any natural catastrophe (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, winddriven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion, in any part of the United States, which, in the determination of the President, causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under the Stafford Act to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby (42 U.S.C. 5122).

Major system means that combination of elements that will function together to produce the capabilities required to fulfill a mission need. The elements may include hardware, equipment, software, or any combination thereof, but exclude construction or other improvements to real property. A system is a major system if-

(1) The Department of Defense is responsible for the system and the total expenditures for research, development, test, and evaluation for the system are estimated to be more than $185 million based on Fiscal Year 2014 constant dollars or the eventual total expenditure for the acquisition exceeds $835 million based on Fiscal Year 2014 constant dollars (or any update of these thresholds based on a more recent fiscal year, as specified in the DoD Instruction 5000.02, "Operation of the Defense Acquisition System")

(2) A civilian agency is responsible for the system and total expenditures for the system are estimated to exceed $2.5 million or the dollar threshold for a "major system" established by the agency pursuant to Office of Management and Budget Circular A-109, entitled "Major System Acquisitions," whichever is greater or

(3) The system is designated a "major system" by the head of the agency responsible for the system (10 U.S.C.2302 and 41 U.S.C. 109).

Make-or-buy program means that part of a contractor’s written plan for a contract identifying those major items to be produced or work efforts to be performed in the prime contractor’s facilities and those to be subcontracted.

Manufactured end product means any end product in product and service codes (PSC) 1000-9999, except-

(1) PSC 5510, Lumber and Related Basic Wood Materials

(2) Product or service group (PSG) 87, Agricultural Supplies

(5) PSC 9410, Crude Grades of Plant Materials

(6) PSC 9430, Miscellaneous Crude Animal Products, Inedible

(7) PSC 9440, Miscellaneous Crude Agricultural and Forestry Products

(9) PSC 9620, Minerals, Natural and Synthetic and

(10) PSC 9630, Additive Metal Materials.

Market research means collecting and analyzing information about capabilities within the market to satisfy agency needs.

Master solicitation means a document containing special clauses and provisions that have been identified as essential for the acquisition of a specific type of supply or service that is acquired repetitively.

May denotes the permissive. However, the words "no person may. " mean that no person is required, authorized, or permitted to do the act described.

Micro-purchase means an acquisition of supplies or services using simplified acquisition procedures, the aggregate amount of which does not exceed the micro-purchase threshold.

Micro-purchase threshold means $10,000, except it means-

(1) For acquisitions of construction subject to 40 U.S.C. chapter 31, subchapter IV, Wage Rate Requirements (Construction), $2,000

(2) For acquisitions of services subject to 41 U.S.C. chapter 67, Service Contract Labor Standards, $2,500

(3) For acquisitions of supplies or services that, as determined by the head of the agency, are to be used to support a contingency operation to facilitate defense against or recovery from cyber, nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological attack to support a request from the Secretary of State or the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development to facilitate provision of international disaster assistance pursuant to 22 U.S.C. 2292 et seq. or to support response to an emergency or major disaster (42 U.S.C. 5122), as described in 13.201(g)(1), except for construction subject to 40 U.S.C. chapter 31, subchapter IV, Wage Rate Requirements (Construction) (41 U.S.C. 1903)–

(i) $20,000 in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, inside the United States and

(ii) $35,000 in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States and

(4) For acquisitions of supplies or services from institutions of higher education (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)) or related or affiliated nonprofit entities, or from nonprofit research organizations or independent research institutes—

(ii) A higher threshold, as determined appropriate by the head of the agency and consistent with clean audit findings under 31 U.S.C. chapter 75, Requirements for Single Audits an internal institutional risk assessment or State law.

Minority Institution means an institution of higher education meeting the requirements of Section 365(3) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1067k), including a Hispanic-serving institution of higher education, as defined in Section 502(a) of the Act (20 U.S.C. 1101a).

Multi-agency contract (MAC) means a task-order or delivery-order contract established by one agency for use by Government agencies to obtain supplies and services, consistent with the Economy Act (see 17.502-2). Multi-agency contracts include contracts for information technology established pursuant to 40 U.S.C. 11314(a)(2).

Multiple-award contract means a contract that is—

(1) A Multiple Award Schedule contract issued by GSA (e.g., GSA Schedule Contract) or agencies granted Multiple Award Schedule contract authority by GSA (e.g., Department of Veterans Affairs) as described in FAR part 38

(2) A multiple-award task-order or delivery-order contract issued in accordance with FAR subpart 16.5, including Governmentwide acquisition contracts or

(3) Any other indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity contract entered into with two or more sources pursuant to the same solicitation.

National defense means any activity related to programs for military or atomic energy production or construction, military assistance to any foreign nation, stockpiling, or space, except that for use in subpart 11.6, see the definition in 11.601.

Neutral person means an impartial third party, who serves as a mediator, fact finder, or arbitrator, or otherwise functions to assist the parties to resolve the issues in controversy. A neutral person may be a permanent or temporary officer or employee of the Federal Government or any other individual who is acceptable to the parties. A neutral person must have no official, financial, or personal conflict of interest with respect to the issues in controversy, unless the interest is fully disclosed in writing to all parties and all parties agree that the neutral person may serve (5 U.S.C.583).

Nondevelopmental item means—

(1) Any previously developed item of supply used exclusively for governmental purposes by a Federal agency, a State or local government, or a foreign government with which the United States has a mutual defense cooperation agreement

(2) Any item described in paragraph (1) of this definition that requires only minor modification or modifications of a type customarily available in the commercial marketplace in order to meet the requirements of the procuring department or agency or

(3) Any item of supply being produced that does not meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) or (2) solely because the item is not yet in use.

Novation agreement means a legal instrument-

(ii) Successor in interest (transferee) and

(2) By which, among other things, the transferor guarantees performance of the contract, the transferee assumes all obligations under the contract, and the Government recognizes the transfer of the contract and related assets.

Offer means a response to a solicitation that, if accepted, would bind the offeror to perform the resultant contract. Responses to invitations for bids (sealed bidding) are offers called "bids" or "sealed bids" responses to requests for proposals (negotiation) are offers called "proposals" however, responses to requests for quotations (simplified acquisition) are "quotations," not offers. For unsolicited proposals, see subpart 15.6.

Offeror means offeror or bidder.

Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization means the Office of Small Business Programs when referring to the Department of Defense.

OMB Uniform Guidance at 2 CFR part 200 is the abbreviated title for Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards ( 2 CFR part 200 ), which supersedes OMB Circulars A-21, A-87, A-89, A-102, A-110, A-122, and A-133, and the guidance in Circular A-50 on Audit Followup.

Option means a unilateral right in a contract by which, for a specified time, the Government may elect to purchase additional supplies or services called for by the contract, or may elect to extend the term of the contract.

Organizational conflict of interest means that because of other activities or relationships with other persons, a person is unable or potentially unable to render impartial assistance or advice to the Government, or the person’s objectivity in performing the contract work is or might be otherwise impaired, or a person has an unfair competitive advantage.

(ii) The Northern Mariana Islands

(iii) U.S. Virgin Islands and

Overtime means time worked by a contractor’s employee in excess of the employee’s normal workweek.

Overtime premium means the difference between the contractor’s regular rate of pay to an employee for the shift involved and the higher rate paid for overtime. It does not include shift premium, i.e., the difference between the contractor's regular rate of pay to an employee and the higher rate paid for extra-pay-shift work.

Ozone-depleting substance means any substance the Environmental Protection Agency designates in 40 CFR Part 82 as—

(1) Class I, including, but not limited to, chlorofluorocarbons, halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform or

(2) Class II, including, but not limited to, hydrochlorofluorocarbons.

Partial termination means the termination of a part, but not all, of the work that has not been completed and accepted under a contract.

Past performance means an offeror’s or contractor’s performance on active and physically completed contracts (see 4.804-4).

Performance-based acquisition (PBA) means an acquisition structured around the results to be achieved as opposed to the manner by which the work is to be performed.

Performance Work Statement (PWS) means a statement of work for performance-based acquisitions that describes the required results in clear, specific and objective terms with measurable outcomes.

Personal property means property of any kind or interest in it except real property, records of the Federal Government, and naval vessels of the following categories:

Personal services contract means a contract that, by its express terms or as administered, makes the contractor personnel appear to be, in effect, Government employees (see 37.104).

Plant clearance officer means an authorized representative of the contracting officer, appointed in accordance with agency procedures, responsible for screening, redistributing, and disposing of contractor inventory from a contractor’s plant or work site. The term "Contractor’s plant" includes, but is not limited to, Government-owned contractor-operated plants, Federal installations, and Federal and non-Federal industrial operations, as may be required under the scope of the contract.

Pollution prevention means any practice that-

(i) Reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal and

(ii) Reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, and contaminants

(2) Reduces or eliminates the creation of pollutants through increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources or

(3) Protects natural resources by conservation.

Power of attorney means the authority given one person or corporation to act for and obligate another, as specified in the instrument creating the power in corporate suretyship, an instrument under seal that appoints an attorney-in-fact to act in behalf of a surety company in signing bonds (see also "attorney-in-fact" at 28.001).

Preaward survey means an evaluation of a prospective contractor’s capability to perform a proposed contract.

Preponderance of the evidence means proof by information that, compared with that opposing it, leads to the conclusion that the fact at issue is more probably true than not.

Pricing means the process of establishing a reasonable amount or amounts to be paid for supplies or services.

Principal means an officer, director, owner, partner, or a person having primary management or supervisory responsibilities within a business entity (e.g., general manager plant manager head of a division or business segment and similar positions).

Procurement (see "acquisition").

Procuring activity means a component of an executive agency having a significant acquisition function and designated as such by the head of the agency. Unless agency regulations specify otherwise, the term "procuring activity" is synonymous with "contracting activity."

Products has the same meaning as "supplies."

Projected average loss means the estimated long-term average loss per period for periods of comparable exposure to risk of loss.

Proper invoice means an invoice that meets the minimum standards specified in 32.905(b).

Purchase order, when issued by the Government, means an offer by the Government to buy supplies or services, including construction and research and development, upon specified terms and conditions, using simplified acquisition procedures.

Qualification requirement means a Government requirement for testing or other quality assurance demonstration that must be completed before award of a contract.

Qualified products list (QPL) means a list of products that have been examined, tested, and have satisfied all applicable qualification requirements.

Qualifying offeror, as used in 13.106-1 and 15.304, means an offeror that is determined to be a responsible source, submits a technically acceptable proposal that conforms to the requirements of the solicitation, and the contracting officer has no reason to believe would be likely to offer other than fair and reasonable pricing (10 U.S.C. 2305(a)(3)(D)).

Receiving report means written evidence that indicates Government acceptance of supplies delivered or services performed (see subpart 46.6). Receiving reports must meet the requirements of 32.905(c).

Recovered material means waste materials and by-products recovered or diverted from solid waste, but the term does not include those materials and by-products generated from, and commonly reused within, an original manufacturing process. For use in subpart 11.3 for paper and paper products, see the definition at 11.301.

Registered in the System for Award Management (SAM) means that—

(1) The Contractor has entered all mandatory information, including the unique entity identifier and the Electronic Funds Transfer indicator (if applicable), the Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code, as well as data required by the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (see subpart 4.14), into SAM

(2) The Contractor has completed the Core, Assertions, Representations and Certifications, and Points of Contact sections of the registration in SAM

(3) The Government has validated all mandatory data fields, to include validation of the Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The contractor will be required to provide consent for TIN validation to the Government as a part of the SAM registration process and

(4) The Government has marked the record Active.

Renewable energy means energy produced by solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, landfill gas, ocean (including tidal, wave, current, and thermal), municipal solid waste, or new hydroelectric generation capacity achieved from increased efficiency or additions of new capacity at an existing hydroelectric project (Energy Policy Act of 2005, 42 U.S.C. 15852).

Renewable energy technology means—

(1) Technologies that use renewable energy to provide light, heat, cooling, or mechanical or electrical energy for use in facilities or other activities or

(2) The use of integrated whole-building designs that rely upon renewable energy resources, including passive solar design.

Requesting agency means the agency that has the requirement for an interagency acquisition.

Residual value means the proceeds, less removal and disposal costs, if any, realized upon disposition of a tangible capital asset. It usually is measured by the net proceeds from the sale or other disposition of the asset, or its fair value if the asset is traded in on another asset. The estimated residual value is a current forecast of the residual value.

Responsible audit agency means the agency that is responsible for performing all required contract audit services at a business unit.

Responsible prospective contractor means a contractor that meets the standards in 9.104.

Scrap means personal property that has no value except its basic metallic, mineral, or organic content.

Segment means one of two or more divisions, product departments, plants, or other subdivisions of an organization reporting directly to a home office, usually identified with responsibility for profit and/or producing a product or service. The term includes-

(1) Government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) facilities and

(2) Joint ventures and subsidiaries (domestic and foreign) in which the organization has-

(i) A majority ownership or

(ii) Less than a majority ownership, but over which it exercises control.

Self-insurance means the assumption or retention of the risk of loss by the contractor, whether voluntarily or involuntarily. Self-insurance includes the deductible portion of purchased insurance.

Senior procurement executive means the individual appointed pursuant to 41 U.S.C. 1702(c) who is responsible for management direction of the acquisition system of the executive agency, including implementation of the unique acquisition policies, regulations, and standards of the executive agency.

Service-disabled veteran-owned small business concern

(1) Means a small business concern–

(i) Not less than 51 percent of which is owned by one or more service-disabled veterans or, in the case of any publicly owned business, not less than 51 percent of the stock of which is owned by one or more service-disabled veterans and

(ii) The management and daily business operations of which are controlled by one or more service-disabled veterans or, in the case of a service-disabled veteran with permanent and severe disability, the spouse or permanent caregiver of such veteran.

(2) Service-disabled veteran means a veteran, as defined in 38 U.S.C.101(2), with a disability that is service-connected, as defined in 38 U.S.C.101(16).

Servicing agency means the agency that will conduct an assisted acquisition on behalf of the requesting agency.

Shall denotes the imperative.

Shipment means freight transported or to be transported.

Shop drawings means drawings submitted by the construction contractor or a subcontractor at any tier or required under a construction contract, showing in detail either or both of the following:

(1) The proposed fabrication and assembly of structural elements.

(2) The installation (i.e., form, fit, and attachment details) of materials or equipment.

Should means an expected course of action or policy that is to be followed unless inappropriate for a particular circumstance.

Signature or "signed" means the discrete, verifiable symbol of an individual that, when affixed to a writing with the knowledge and consent of the individual, indicates a present intention to authenticate the writing. This includes electronic symbols.

Simplified acquisition procedures means the methods prescribed in part 13 for making purchases of supplies or services.

Simplified acquisition threshold means $250,000, except for—

(1) Acquisitions of supplies or services that, as determined by the head of the agency, are to be used to support a contingency operation to facilitate defense against or recovery from cyber, nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack to support a request from the Secretary of State or the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development to facilitate provision of international disaster assistance pursuant to 22 U.S.C. 2292 et seq. or to support response to an emergency or major disaster (42 U.S.C. 5122), (41 U.S.C. 1903), the term means–

(i) $800,000 for any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, inside the United States and

(ii) $1.5 million for any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States and

(2) Acquisitions of supplies or services that, as determined by the head of the agency, are to be used to support a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation (10 U.S.C. 2302), the term means $500,000 for any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States.

Single, Governmentwide point of entry, means the one point of entry to be designated by the Administrator of OFPP that will allow the private sector to electronically access procurement opportunities Governmentwide.

(1) Means a concern, including its affiliates, that is independently owned and operated, not dominant in the field of operation in which it is bidding on Government contracts, and qualified as a small business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121 (see 19.102). Such a concern is “not dominant in its field of operation” when it does not exercise a controlling or major influence on a national basis in a kind of business activity in which a number of business concerns are primarily engaged. In determining whether dominance exists, consideration must be given to all appropriate factors, including volume of business, number of employees, financial resources, competitive status or position, ownership or control of materials, processes, patents, license agreements, facilities, sales territory, and nature of business activity. (See 15 U.S.C. 632.)

(2) Affiliates, as used in this definition, means business concerns, one of whom directly or indirectly controls or has the power to control the others, or a third party or parties control or have the power to control the others. In determining whether affiliation exists, consideration is given to all appropriate factors including common ownership, common management, and contractual relationships. SBA determines affiliation based on the factors set forth at 13 CFR 121.103.

Small business subcontractor means a concern that does not exceed the size standard for the North American Industry Classification Systems code that the prime contractor determines best describes the product or service being acquired by the subcontract.

Small Business Teaming Arrangement

(1) Means an arrangement where–

(i) Two or more small business concerns have formed a joint venture or

(ii) A small business offeror agrees with one or more other small business concerns to have them act as its subcontractors under a specified Government contract. A Small Business Teaming Arrangement between the offeror and its small business subcontractor(s) exists through a written agreement between the parties that–

(A) Is specifically referred to as a "Small Business Teaming Arrangement" and

(B) Sets forth the different responsibilities, roles, and percentages (or other allocations) of work as it relates to the acquisition

(i) For civilian agencies, may include two business concerns in a mentor-protégé relationship when both the mentor and the protégé are small or the protégé is small and the concerns have received an exception to affiliation pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3)(ii) or (iii) .

(ii) For DoD, may include two business concerns in a mentor-protégé relationship in the Department of Defense Pilot Mentor-Protégé Program (see section 831 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101-510 10 U.S.C. 2302 note)) when both the mentor and the protégé are small. There is no exception to joint venture size affiliation for offers received from teaming arrangements under the Department of Defense Pilot Mentor-Protégé Program and

(3) See 13 CFR 121.103(b)(9) regarding the exception to affiliation for offers received from Small Business Teaming Arrangements in the case of a solicitation of offers for a bundled contract with a reserve.

Small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124.1002 , means a small business concern under the size standard applicable to the acquisition, that:

(1) Is at least 51 percent unconditionally and directly owned (as defined at 13 CFR 124.105) by—

(i) One or more socially disadvantaged (as defined at 13 CFR 124.103 ) and economically disadvantaged (as defined at 13 CFR 124.104 ) individuals who are citizens of the United States and

(ii) Each individual claiming economic disadvantage has a net worth not exceeding $750,000 after taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2) and

(2) The management and daily business operations of which are controlled (as defined at 13 CFR 124.106 ) by individuals who meet the criteria in paragraphs (1)(i) and (ii) of this definition.

Sole source acquisition means a contract for the purchase of supplies or services that is entered into or proposed to be entered into by an agency after soliciting and negotiating with only one source.

Solicitation means any request to submit offers or quotations to the Government. Solicitations under sealed bid procedures are called "invitations for bids." Solicitations under negotiated procedures are called "requests for proposals." Solicitations under simplified acquisition procedures may require submission of either a quotation or an offer.

Solicitation provision or provision means a term or condition used only in solicitations and applying only before contract award.

Source selection information means any of the following information that is prepared for use by an agency for the purpose of evaluating a bid or proposal to enter into an agency procurement contract, if that information has not been previously made available to the public or disclosed publicly:

(1) Bid prices submitted in response to an agency invitation for bids, or lists of those bid prices before bid opening.

(2) Proposed costs or prices submitted in response to an agency solicitation, or lists of those proposed costs or prices.

(4) Technical evaluation plans.

(5) Technical evaluations of proposals.

(6) Cost or price evaluations of proposals.

(7) Competitive range determinations that identify proposals that have a reasonable chance of being selected for award of a contract.

(8) Rankings of bids, proposals, or competitors.

(9) Reports and evaluations of source selection panels, boards, or advisory councils.

(10) Other information marked as "Source Selection Information-See FAR 2.101 and 3.104" based on a case-by-case determination by the head of the agency or the contracting officer, that its disclosure would jeopardize the integrity or successful completion of the Federal agency procurement to which the information relates.

Special competency means a special or unique capability, including qualitative aspects, developed incidental to the primary functions of the Federally Funded Research and Development Centers to meet some special need.

Special test equipment means either single or multipurpose integrated test units engineered, designed, fabricated, or modified to accomplish special purpose testing in performing a contract. It consists of items or assemblies of equipment including foundations and similar improvements necessary for installing special test equipment, and standard or general purpose items or components that are interconnected and interdependent so as to become a new functional entity for special testing purposes. Special test equipment does not include material, special tooling, real property, and equipment items used for general testing purposes or property that with relatively minor expense can be made suitable for general purpose use.

Special tooling means jigs, dies, fixtures, molds, patterns, taps, gauges, and all components of these items including foundations and similar improvements necessary for installing special tooling, and which are of such a specialized nature that without substantial modification or alteration their use is limited to the development or production of particular supplies or parts thereof or to the performance of particular services. Special tooling does not include material, special test equipment, real property, equipment, machine tools, or similar capital items.

State and local taxes means taxes levied by the States, the District of Columbia, outlying areas of the United States, or their political subdivisions.

Statement of Objectives (SOO) means a Government-prepared document incorporated into the solicitation that states the overall performance objectives. It is used in solicitations when the Government intends to provide the maximum flexibility to each offeror to propose an innovative approach.

Subline item means a subset of a line item.

Substantial evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred.

Substantially as follows or "substantially the same as," when used in the prescription and introductory text of a provision or clause, means that authorization is granted to prepare and utilize a variation of that provision or clause to accommodate requirements that are peculiar to an individual acquisition provided that the variation includes the salient features of the FAR provision or clause, and is not inconsistent with the intent, principle, and substance of the FAR provision or clause or related coverage of the subject matter.

Supplemental agreement means a contract modification that is accomplished by the mutual action of the parties.

Supplies means all property except land or interest in land. It includes (but is not limited to) public works, buildings, and facilities ships, floating equipment, and vessels of every character, type, and description, together with parts and accessories aircraft and aircraft parts, accessories, and equipment machine tools and the alteration or installation of any of the foregoing.

Supporting a diplomatic or consular mission means performing outside the United States under a contract administered by Federal agency personnel who are subject to the direction of a Chief of Mission.

Surety means an individual or corporation legally liable for the debt, default, or failure of a principal to satisfy a contractual obligation. The types of sureties referred to are as follows:

(1) An individual surety is one person, as distinguished from a business entity, who is liable for the entire penal amount of the bond.

(2) A corporate surety is licensed under various insurance laws and, under its charter, has legal power to act as surety for others.

(3) A cosurety is one of two or more sureties that are jointly liable for the penal sum of the bond. A limit of liability for each surety may be stated.

Surplus property means excess personal property not required by any Federal agency as determined by the Administrator of the General Services Administration (GSA). (See 41 CFR 102-36.40 ).

Suspension means action taken by a suspending official under 9.407 to disqualify a contractor temporarily from Government contracting and Government-approved subcontracting a contractor that is disqualified is "suspended."

Sustainable acquisition means acquiring goods and services in order to create and maintain conditions-

(1) Under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony and

(2) That permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations.

System for Award Management (SAM) means the primary Government repository for prospective Federal awardee and Federal awardee information and the centralized Government system for certain contracting, grants, and other assistance-related processes. It includes—

(1) Data collected from prospective Federal awardees required for the conduct of business with the Government

(2) Prospective contractor-submitted annual representations and certifications in accordance with FAR subpart 4.12 and

(3) Identification of those parties excluded from receiving Federal contracts, certain subcontracts, and certain types of Federal financial and non-financial assistance and benefits.

Task order means an order for services placed against an established contract or with Government sources.

Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) means the number required by the IRS to be used by the offeror in reporting income tax and other returns. The TIN may be either a Social Security Number or an Employer Identification Number.

Technical data means recorded information (regardless of the form or method of the recording) of a scientific or technical nature (including computer databases and computer software documentation). This term does not include computer software or financial, administrative, cost or pricing, or management data or other information incidental to contract administration. The term includes recorded information of a scientific or technical nature that is included in computer databases (see 41 U.S.C. 116 ).

Terminated portion of the contract means the portion of a contract that the contractor is not to perform following a partial termination. For construction contracts that have been completely terminated for convenience, it means the entire contract, notwithstanding the completion of, and payment for, individual items of work before termination.

Termination for convenience means the exercise of the Government’s right to completely or partially terminate performance of work under a contract when it is in the Government’s interest.

Termination for default means the exercise of the Government’s right to completely or partially terminate a contract because of the contractor’s actual or anticipated failure to perform its contractual obligations.

Termination inventory means any property purchased, supplied, manufactured, furnished, or otherwise acquired for the performance of a contract subsequently terminated and properly allocable to the terminated portion of the contract. It includes Government-furnished property. It does not include any facilities, material, special test equipment, or special tooling that are subject to a separate contract or to a special contract requirement governing their use or disposition.

Unallowable cost means any cost that, under the provisions of any pertinent law, regulation, or contract, cannot be included in prices, cost-reimbursements, or settlements under a Government contract to which it is allocable.

Unique and innovative concept, when used relative to an unsolicited research proposal, means that-

(1) In the opinion and to the knowledge of the Government evaluator, the meritorious proposal-

(i) Is the product of original thinking submitted confidentially by one source

(ii) Contains new, novel, or changed concepts, approaches, or methods

(iii) Was not submitted previously by another and

(iv) Is not otherwise available within the Federal Government.

(2) In this context, the term does not mean that the source has the sole capability of performing the research.

Unique entity identifier means a number or other identifier used to identify a specific commercial, nonprofit, or Government entity. See www.sam.gov for the designated entity for establishing unique entity identifiers.

United States, when used in a geographic sense, means the 50 States and the District of Columbia, except as follows:

(1) For use in subpart 3.10, see the definition at 3.1001.

(2) For use in subpart 22.8, see the definition at 22.801.

(3) For use in subpart 22.10, see the definition at 22.1001.

(4) For use in subpart 22.13, see the definition at 22.1301.

(5) For use in subpart 22.16, see the definition at 22.1601.

(6) For use in subpart 22.17, see the definition at 22.1702.

(7) For use in subpart 22.18, see the definition at 22.1801.

(8) For use in part 23, see definition at 23.001.

(9) For use in part 25, see the definition at 25.003.

(10) For use in part 27, see the definition at 27.001.

(11) For use in subpart 47.4, see the definition at 47.401.

Unsolicited proposal means a written proposal for a new or innovative idea that is submitted to an agency on the initiative of the offeror for the purpose of obtaining a contract with the Government, and that is not in response to a request for proposals, Broad Agency Announcement, Small Business Innovation Research topic, Small Business Technology Transfer Research topic, Program Research and Development Announcement, or any other Government-initiated solicitation or program.

Value engineering means an analysis of the functions of a program, project, system, product, item of equipment, building, facility, service, or supply of an executive agency, performed by qualified agency or contractor personnel, directed at improving performance, reliability, quality, safety, and life-cycle costs (41 U.S.C. 1711). For use in the clause at 52.248-2, see the definition at 52.248-2(b).

Value engineering change proposal (VECP)-

(i) Requires a change to the instant contract to implement and

(ii) Results in reducing the overall projected cost to the agency without impairing essential functions or characteristics, provided, that it does not involve a change–

(A) In deliverable end item quantities only

(B) In research and development (R&D) items or R&D test quantities that are due solely to results of previous testing under the instant contract or

(C) To the contract type only.

(2) For use in the clauses at-

(i) 52.248-2, see the definition at 52.248-2(b) and

(ii) 52.248-3, see the definition at 52.248-3(b).

Veteran-owned small business concern means a small business concern-

(1) Not less than 51 percent of which is owned by one or more veterans (as defined at 38 U.S.C.101(2)) or, in the case of any publicly owned business, not less than 51 percent of the stock of which is owned by one or more veterans and

(2) The management and daily business operations of which are controlled by one or more veterans.

(1) Previously unused raw material, including previously unused copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, iron, other metal or metal ore or

(2) Any undeveloped resource that is, or with new technology will become, a source of raw materials.

Voluntary consensus standards means common and repeated use of rules, conditions, guidelines or characteristics for products, or related processes and production methods and related management systems. Voluntary Consensus Standards are developed or adopted by domestic and international voluntary consensus standard making bodies (e.g., International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and ASTM-International). See OMB Circular A-119.

Warranty means a promise or affirmation given by a contractor to the Government regarding the nature, usefulness, or condition of the supplies or performance of services furnished under the contract.

Waste reduction means preventing or decreasing the amount of waste being generated through waste prevention, recycling, or purchasing recycled and environmentally preferable products.

Water consumption intensity means water consumption per square foot of building space.

Women-owned small business concern means—

(1) A small business concern–

(i) That is at least 51 percent owned by one or more women or, in the case of any publicly owned business, at least 51 percent of the stock of which is owned by one or more women and

(ii) Whose management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women or

(2) A small business concern eligible under the Women-Owned Small Business Program in accordance with 13 CFR part 127 (see subpart 19.15).

Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program.

(1) "Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program" means a program that authorizes contracting officers to limit competition, including award on a sole source basis, to—

(i) Economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program for Federal contracts assigned a North American Industry Classification Systems (NAICS) code in an industry in which the Small Business Administration (SBA) has determined that WOSB concerns are underrepresented in Federal procurement and

(ii) WOSB concerns eligible under the WOSB Program for Federal contracts assigned a NAICS code in an industry in which SBA has determined that WOSB concerns are substantially underrepresented in Federal procurement.

(2) "Economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern" means a small business concern that is at least 51 percent directly and unconditionally owned by, and the management and daily business operations of which are controlled by, one or more women who are citizens of the United States and who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127 . It automatically qualifies as a women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible under the WOSB Program.

(3) "Women-owned small business (WOSB)" concern eligible under the WOSB Program means a small business concern that is at least 51 percent directly and unconditionally owned by, and the management and daily business operations of which are controlled by, one or more women who are citizens of the United States ( 13 CFR part 127 ).

Writing or written (see "in writing").


Oasis P14M, PM, P8M, NSWD8, NSWD14, NSWDLR Operator’s Manual

Inspect the carton and water cooler for evidence of rough handling and concealed damage. Damage claims should be filed with the carrier.

The only maintenance operation required is the removal of dirt and lint from the condenser. Inspection should be made at 3 month intervals. Disconnect the power supply cord, then clean the condenser with a small stiff non-wire brush, when required. Observance of this procedure will insure adequate air circulation through the condenser so operation is efficient and economical.

The compressor motor is equipped with an automatic reset protector which will disconnect the motor from the line in case of an overload.

This unit is equipped with hermetically sealed compressor and requires no additional lubrication. If the unit is equipped with a fan motor having oil holes, it seldom needs oiling, but if required, few drops of SAE 10 oil should be used.

5. TO PUT WATER COOLER INTO SERVICE

a) Note: The following states require a licensed plumber to install cooler AR, GA, MA, MI, OK, RI, SC, SD, TX, VT and WI.

CA, KS, MN, NM and OR allow for a state-registered installer or contractor as well. State and local plumbing codes may prohibit the use of saddle tapping valves for water line connection in some applications. All connections must conform to applicable plumbing codes.

b) Locate and install plumbing and electrical service in accordance with the roughing-in drawing. Filter units have additional instructions on a label inside the access panel. Read these before installing the unit.

c) Install unit on the wall hanger.

d) Install a trap in the waste line and a shut-off valve in the water supply line. Internal waste line and trap should be wrapped with insulating tape to prevent sweating.

e) Use clean 3/8” OD copper tubing for water supply line.

f) To fill the cold water tank, open the shut-off and bubbler valves. Deflect stream from bubbler and run water until stream free of bubbles.

g) Rotate fan blade by hand to see that it is free of obstructions.

h) On hot and cold model, fill the water heating tank by drawing water from the hot water dispenser until the stream is free of bubbles.

i) Check the available power supply against the water cooler data plate to assure correct electrical service. Plug power supply cord into receptacle.

j) On hot and cold model, make certain the hot water tank contains water. Then turn the hot water tank heater switch to the “ON” position. DANGER WATER DISPENSED FROM THE HOT FAUCET CAN SCALD.

6. WATER VALVE ADJUSTMENT ON WATER COOLED MODELS

The valve is factory set and will not ordinarily require readjustment. If adjustment is required, turn the adjusting stem of the valve counterclockwise to increase flow, clockwise to decrease flow. Do not adjust more than 1/8 turn at a time and never adjust more than ½ turn total in either direction.

7. TO DISCONTINUE USE OF WATER COOLER

b) Disconnect the power supply cord.

c) Close the water shut-off valve.

d) On hot and cold model, the hot water tank heater switch should be in the “OFF” position.

e) Provide container to catch water and remove drain plug(s) from tank(s).

f) Remove plug from condenser drain tube when the unit is a water cooled model.

g) Remove or open bubbler valve and, if any, the glassfiller and hot valve. Replace plug(s) when draining is complete.

h) ALWAYS DRAIN ALL WATER WHEN FREEZING TEMPERATURES ARE ANTICIPATED AND BEFORE SHIPPING THE WATER COOLER.

The warranty and the Underwriters' Laboratory listing for this machine are automatically voided if this machine is altered, modified, or combined with any other machine or device. Alteration or modification of this machine may cause serious flooding and/or hazardous electrical shock or fire. EXCEPT AS SET FORTH HEREIN, THE MANUFACTURER MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTY, GUARANTEE OR AGREEMENT EXPRESSED, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OR MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


The Heroic Labors of Hercules

Apollo understood that Hercules’ crime had not been his fault—Hera’s vengeful actions were no secret𠅋ut still he insisted that the young man make amends. He ordered Hercules to perform 12 “heroic labors” for the Mycenaen king Eurystheus. Once Hercules completed every one of the labors, Apollo declared, he would be absolved of his guilt and achieve immortality.

The Nemean Lion
First, Apollo sent Hercules to the hills of Nemea to kill a lion that was terrorizing the people of the region. (Some storytellers say that Zeus had fathered this magical beast as well.) Hercules trapped the lion in its cave and strangled it. For the rest of his life, he wore the animal’s pelt as a cloak.

The Lernaean Hydra
Second, Hercules traveled to the city of Lerna to slay the nine-headed Hydra𠅊 poisonous, snake-like creature who lived underwater, guarding the entrance to the Underworld. For this task, Hercules had the help of his nephew Iolaus. He cut off each of the monster’s heads while Iolaus burned each wound with a torch. This way, the pair kept the heads from growing back.The Golden HindNext, Hercules set off to capture the sacred pet of the goddess Diana: a red deer, or hind, with golden antlers and bronze hooves. Eurystheus had chosen this task for his rival because he believed that Diana would kill anyone she caught trying to steal her pet however, once Hercules explained his situation to the goddess, she allowed him to go on his way without punishment.

The Erymanthean Boar
Fourth, Hercules used a giant net to snare the terrifying, man-eating wild boar of Mount Erymanthus.

The Augean StablesHercules’ fifth task was supposed to be humiliating as well as impossible: cleaning all the dung out of King Augeas’ enormous stables in a single day. However, Hercules completed the job easily, flooding the barn by diverting two nearby rivers.

The Stymphlaian Birds
Hercules’ sixth task was straightforward: Travel to the town of Stymphalos and drive away the huge flock of carnivorous birds that had taken up residence in its trees. This time, it was the goddess Athena who came to the hero’s aid: She gave him a pair of magical bronze krotala, or noisemakers, forged by the god Hephaistos. Hercules used these tools to frighten the birds away.

The Cretan Bull
Next, Hercules went to Crete to capture a rampaging bull that had impregnated the wife of the island’s king. (She later gave birth to the Minotaur, a creature with a man’s body and a bull’s head.) Hercules drove the bull back to Eurystheus, who released it into the streets of Marathon.

The Horses of Diomedes
Hercules’ eighth challenge was to capture the four man-eating horses of the Thracian king Diomedes. He brought them to Eurystheus, who dedicated the horses to Hera and set them free.

Hippolyte’s Belt
The ninth labor was complicated: stealing an armored belt that belonged to the Amazon queen Hippolyte. At first, the queen welcomed Hercules and agreed to give him the belt without a fight. However, the troublemaking Hera disguised herself as an Amazon warrior and spread a rumor that Hercules intended to kidnap the queen. To protect their leader, the women attacked the hero’s fleet then, fearing for his safety, Hercules killed Hippolyte and ripped the belt from her body.

The Cattle of Geryon
For his 10th labor, Hercules was dispatched nearly to Africa to steal the cattle of the three-headed, six-legged monster Geryon. Once again, Hera did all she could to prevent the hero from succeeding, but eventually he returned to Mycenae with the cows.

The Apples of Hesperides
Next, Eurystheus sent Hercules to steal Hera’s wedding gift to Zeus: a set of golden apples guarded by a group of nymphs known as the Hesperides. This task was difficult—Hercules needed the help of the mortal Prometheus and the god Atlas to pull it off𠅋ut the hero eventually managed to run away with the apples. After he showed them to the king, he returned them to the gods’ garden where they belonged.

Cerberus
For his final challenge, Hercules traveled to Hades to kidnap Cerberus, the vicious three-headed dog that guarded its gates. Hercules managed to capture Cerberus by using his superhuman strength to wrestle the monster to the ground. Afterward, the dog returned unharmed to his post at the entrance to the Underworld.


The changing social order

Social change in the broadest sense is any change in social relations. Viewed this way, social change is an ever-present phenomenon in any society. A distinction is sometimes made then between processes of change within the social structure, which serve in part to maintain the structure, and processes that modify the structure (societal change).

The specific meaning of social change depends first on the social entity considered. Changes in a small group may be important on the level of that group itself but negligible on the level of the larger society. Similarly, the observation of social change depends on the time span studied most short-term changes are negligible when examined in the long run. Small-scale and short-term changes are characteristic of human societies, because customs and norms change, new techniques and technologies are invented, environmental changes spur new adaptations, and conflicts result in redistributions of power.

This universal human potential for social change has a biological basis. It is rooted in the flexibility and adaptability of the human species—the near absence of biologically fixed action patterns (instincts) on the one hand and the enormous capacity for learning, symbolizing, and creating on the other hand. The human constitution makes possible changes that are not biologically (that is to say, genetically) determined. Social change, in other words, is possible only by virtue of biological characteristics of the human species, but the nature of the actual changes cannot be reduced to these species traits.


Art & Art History: Citing Images in Chicago Style

Captions appear below an image or illustration. If presenting a table, see separate instructions in the Chicago Manual of Style for tables.

A caption may be an incomplete or complete sentence. It should be capitalized as you would for a regular sentence, but any specific titles of any works should follow the rules for titles and be italicized when necessary. Captions should be labeled as a Figure followed by the number in order in which it appears. The first figure should be Fig. 1, second figure is Fig. 2, etc.

A credit line should appear at the end of a caption, sometimes in parentheses or in different type (or both). A photographer&rsquos name occasionally appears in small type parallel to the bottom or side of a photograph. Include a short citation to the work and who owns the image.

Fig. 1 Wartime visit to Australia, winter 1940 (Photograph by Karen Plume. In Australia in Wartime. By Steve Tome. Sydney: Stern and Co., 1992, 12.) Fig. 2 The White Garden, reduced to its bare bones in early spring. The box hedges, which are still cut by hand, have to be carefully kept in scale with the small and complex garden as well as in keeping with the plants inside the &ldquoboxes.&rdquo (Photograph by John Connelly. In Gardening Through the Seasons. By Nicole Mooney. New York: Bantam Books, 2003, 99.)

Captions for Art:

If the image is of a piece of art include information about the artist and location of the artwork in the caption. Works of art can be cited using this format, but include the publication citation for where the image of the work of art was found, unless you have viewed the work in person.

Artist&rsquos name (last name, first name), Title, Date, Medium and support. City, Collection. Fig. 1 Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Slave, 1513-15, marble, 2.09 m. Paris, The Louvre. Fig. 2 Willem de Kooning, Pink Angels, 1945, oil and charcoal on canvas, 52 x 40 in. Frederick R. Los Angeles, Weisman Art Foundation.

If the image is being reproduced publicly you should consider adding copyright information, ie who owns the right to an image.

Fig. 3 Willem de Kooning, Pink Angels, 1945, oil and charcoal on canvas, 52 x 40 in. Frederick R. Los Angeles, Weisman Art Foundation (artwork © 2011 The Willem de Kooning Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York)


Hercules History

Since its first flight in 1954, the Hercules has been everywhere and done just about anything. Aircrews have flown it to both poles, landed or airdropped military supplies to hot spots from Vietnam to Afghanistan and performed countless relief operations around the globe. The Hercules has been used to drop bombs, retrieve satellites in midair, conduct reconnaissance and attack ground targets with cannons. Some models are flown as commercial transports. The C-130 has the longest, continuous military aircraft production run in history and one of the top three longest, continuous aircraft production lines of any type.

Those who design, build, fly, support and maintain a Hercules often say the plane is without a doubt the world’s most proven workhorse— and for good reason. To date, more than 2,500 C-130s have been ordered and/or delivered to 63 nations around the world. Seventy countries operate C-130s, which have been produced in more than 70 different variants.

From the highest of air strips in the Himalayas to landing on aircraft carrier runways in the middle of the ocean, the C-130 regularly—and proudly—defies expectations. The Hercules is known for its ability to tackle any mission, anywhere, at any time.


Watch the video: Craftsman 109 Metal Lathe Opinions and Modifications (December 2022).

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