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Geography of China - History

Geography of China - History


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China covers two large river basins the Yellow River in the North and Yangtze in the south. The rivers both begin in the Mountains of Tibet and flow to the sea. The Rivers provide fertile soil that was easy to cultivate. The Rivers especially the Yellow River could be rampaging torrents that could devastate large areas. The two rivers are divided in the west by mountains that slowly give way to hills and then finally a plain. Almost all of China’s population has been located in the two River Basins. The rest of China is either desert- including the Gobi desert that covers 500,000 square miles or mountains.


  • OFFICIAL NAME: People's Republic of China
  • FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Communist state
  • CAPITAL: Beijing (Peking)
  • POPULATION: 1,384,688,986
  • OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: Standard Chinese, Mandarin
  • MONEY: Yuan (or renminbi)
  • AREA: 3,705,405 square miles (9,596,960 square kilometers)
  • MAJOR MOUNTAIN RANGES: Himalaya
  • MAJOR RIVERS: Yangtze, Yellow

GEOGRAPHY

Stretching 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers) from east to west and 3,400 miles (5,500 kilometers) from north to south, China is a large country with widely varying landscapes. Its territory includes mountains, high plateaus, sandy deserts, and dense forests.

One-third of China's land area is made up of mountains. The tallest mountain on Earth, Mount Everest, sits on the border between China and Nepal.

China has thousands of rivers. The Yangtze and the Yellow Rivers are the most important. At 3,915 miles (6,300 kilometers) long, the Yangtze is the world's third largest river.

Map created by National Geographic Maps

PEOPLE & CULTURE

With a population of 1.3 billion, China has more people than any other country on Earth. About a third of the population lives in cities. The rest of the people live in the country.

Arts and crafts have a long history in China. Thousands of years ago the Chinese were some of the first people to use silk, jade, bronze, wood, and paper to make art. The artistic writing called calligraphy was invented in China.

Much of China's modern beliefs and philosophies are based on the teachings of a government official who lived nearly 3,000 years ago. Kongfuzi, also known as Confucius, taught people the value of such things as morality, kindness, and education.

NATURE

China's diverse habitats are home to hundreds of species of animals and plants. More than 3,800 species of fish and hundreds of amphibians and reptile species live in the rivers, lakes, and coastal waters.

China's forest wildlife is threatened by logging and clear-cutting (clearing the land of all trees) for farmland. Expanding deserts in the north also shrink animal habitats. The Chinese government has created more than 1,200 reserves to protect plant and animal species.

The giant panda lives in the misty mountains of southwest China and nowhere else on Earth. They eat bamboo and usually live near stands of the woody evergreen plant. Pandas have been hunted and only about 1,600 remain in the wild.

GOVERNMENT & ECONOMY

China is an authoritarian state ruled by a very powerful central government. A huge workforce and lots of natural resources have driven economic change. This has forced the communist government to permit more economic and personal freedoms, but it has come at a huge cost to the environment.

Many experts predict that the 21st century will be the "Chinese century." Whether or not that proves to be true, there is no doubt that what happens in China will affect many other nations.

HISTORY

China is the home of one of the world's oldest civilizations, but it has only recently become a "modern" nation. In the last 20 years, China has changed faster than any other country in the world.

Chinese history is divided into dynasties, each of which marks the period when a line of emperors ruled. The first empire was the Qin dynasty and began in 221 B.C. The last emperor was overthrown in 1912, and China became a republic. The communist government began its rule in 1949 following a civil war with the Chinese Nationalists.

Ancient China was a land of invention. For centuries, China was way ahead of most other countries in science and technology, astronomy, and math. The Chinese invented paper, the magnetic compass, printing, porcelain, silk, and gunpowder, among other things.


The North China Plain

Physical characteristics: As its name indicates, this is an area of gently rolling topography. It is subject to flooding, and water often stands in large pools and "lakes," as there is no place for drainage. This creates marshes and shallow, reed-filled lakes, which are good for thatching and weaving as well as migratory birds, fish, and snails. Winter and summer temperatures can be extreme, and dust storms are common. Highly variable weather means good harvests for only three out of every five years.

History: The North China Plain was one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. China's earliest agricultural societies as well as dynasties formed there. People traditionally lived in dispersed communities rather than nucleated settlements because food and water were available everywhere. The primary need to nucleate was as a defense against invaders and raiders. The earliest archaeological sites of "cities" are at the foot of the Taihang Mountains, where there are minerals as well as manageable water resources for all seasons.

Economic activities and resources today: Even today the North China Plain is a land of dispersed agricultural settlements. There is little or no industry other than distinctive indigenous handicrafts. Fresh water must come from wells that often are salty because of poor drainage. The lack of topographic relief means seasonal winds are strong and often destructive. The result is that many areas have planted windbreaks to protect the soil of the fields from erosion. Life on the North China Plain is one of self-sufficiency and subsistence. Wheat, cotton, tobacco, peanuts, persimmons, and other seasonal fruits and vegetables are grown there.

Housing: mud-based, single-story structures with flat roofs

Social organization: villages and clans

Transportation: walking, wheelbarrows, bicycles, cars

Food staples: wheat-based foods


China's Geography : its Mountains, Basins, Rivers and Plains

China is a very diverse country with many distinct geographical regions. It has deserts, high mountains, grasslands, tropical forests and almost every other geographical feature that you can think of.

China's terrain falls in steps from the high Tibetan plateau in the south west to the flat North Coastal plain in the north east. Three great rivers run vaguely west to east to divide the nation into three east-west zones, the Huang He (Yellow River) Chang Jiang (Yangzi River) and Yu Jiang (Pearl River). North-eastern China is dominated by flat plains and coastlines while southern China is mountainous with a rocky coastline. The usual line taken to divide northern from southern China is the course of the Huai River which runs through Henan and Anhui. The lack of rain in western China is one of the most important features of China's climate (see separate climate section).


Chanadorje (Xianuoduoji, 5958m) and Chonggu Grassland, Yading National Nature Reserve. Oct. 2016. Image by Dcpeets ➚ available under a Creative Commons License ➚

Tibetan Plateau

This high plateau covers Tibet Qinghai southern Xinjiang and western Sichuan. It has an average altitude of 14,764 feet [4,500 meters] making it the world's highest and largest plateau. The plateau has permanent glaciers providing source water for East Asia's major rivers: Yellow Yangzi Mekong Brahmaputra Salween Indus Ganges and Tarim. There are many brackish lakes, the largest of which is Qinghai Lake. Monsoons over India bring heavy rain in summer to the extreme southern fringe of Tibet, elsewhere it is very dry. The Yarlung Zangbo ➚ Valley supports some growing of barley but elsewhere the land provides poor pasture for yaks.


Mountains on the Guizhou-Yunnan border

Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau

The altitude of this region falls from the Tibetan plateau in the west to about 1,640 feet [500 meters] in the east. It is scoured by very deep valleys running north to south making east-west travel almost impossible. The climate is wet and humid as tropical air from the south is funneled up the valleys making it suitable for intensive agriculture in the valley bottoms. The weathering of limestone has generated spectacular karst scenery.


View of Inner Mongolia near border with Russia

Inner Mongolian Plateau (Gobi desert)

Stretching across the north of China the Mongolian plateau is broad and flat with an average altitude of 3,281 feet [1,000 meters] . Inner Mongolia covers most of the area extending into northern Gansu Ningxia and western Manchuria (Liaoning Jilin and Heilongjiang). There is no geographical feature forming China's northern border, the plateau stretches on to cover Mongolia as well. Winters are cold and long with low rainfall. Underground water supplies support limited agriculture. Pasture is the main resource to support the herds of grazing animals. The climate is drier in the west and wetter in the east. The Gobi sand desert covers much of the core of this region. Taken all together deserts represent about 20% of China's land area.


Terraced farmland in the loess lands of Gansu

Loess Plateau

Famous for giving the Yellow River its name, the yellow loess plateau stretches south of the Gobi Desert covering Shanxi and parts of Ningxia Gansu and Shaanxi. Loess (fine calcareous sand and silt) forms in places a 197 feet [60 meters] thick layer of friable yellow earth with an average altitude of 3,281 feet [1,000 meters] . The soil retains water well, and that is the reason that this dry region can still produce high crop yields. Over-cultivation of the land over the centuries has removed the important vegetation that bound the soil together and now vegetation is sparse. Trees find it hard to become established in the fine, dry earth. Rainfall is infrequent but heavy, and these deluges move vast amounts of material causing flash flooding. Terracing of the hills has greatly increased the area available for cultivation. Traditionally houses were made by excavating caves into loess cliffs (most famously at Yan'an), the caves are cool in summer and warm in winter.


Mount Everest as seen from the aircraft of Drukair in Bhutan. The aircraft is south of the mountains, facing north. 2006. Image by shrimpo1967 ➚ available under a Creative Commons License ➚

Himalayan Mountains

The highest mountains in the world are on the southern edge of the Tibetan plateau. Mount Everest and other high peaks form the most secure of all land borders. Himalaya means &lsquoHome of snow&rsquo ➚ in Tibetan. Nine of the top 14 highest mountains in the world are in this range. The southern slopes receive huge amounts of rainfall as warm, moist monsoon air hits the mountain barrier.


Kanas national park in Xinjiang

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Rice is the dietary staple in most of the country. In the north and the west, where the climate is too dry to grow rice, wheat is the staple grain. Here, breakfast usually consists of noodles or wheat bread. In the south, many people start the day with rice porridge, or congee, served with shrimp, vegetables, and pickles. Lunch is similar to breakfast. The evening meal is the day's largest. Every meal includes soup, which is served as the last course.

People cook in a wok, a metal pan with a curved bottom this style of cooking requires little oil and a short cooking time. Steaming in bamboo baskets lined with cabbage leaves is another cooking method. Meat is expensive and is served sparingly.

The cuisine can be broken down into four main geographic varieties. In Beijing and Shandong, specialties include Beijing duck served with pancakes and plum sauce, sweet and sour carp, and bird's nest soup. Shanghaiese cuisine uses liberal amounts of oil and is known for seafood and cold meat dishes. Food is particularly spicy in the Sichuan and Hunan provinces. Shrimp with salt and garlic, frogs' legs, and smoked duck are popular dishes.

Cooking reflects the country's history of famines caused by factors such as natural disasters and war. The Chinese eat parts and species of animals that many other cultures do not, including fish heads and eyeballs, birds' feet and saliva, and dog and cat meat.

Tea is the most common beverage. The Han drink it unsweetened and black, Mongolians have it with milk, and Tibetans serve it with yak butter. The Chinese are fond of sugary soft drinks, both American brands and locally produced ones. Beer is a common beverage, and there are many local breweries.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Special occasions and large family gatherings often entail big, elaborate meals. In the north, dumplings called jiaozi are served at the Spring Festival and other special occasions. For the Moon Festival in midautumn, "moon cakes" are served, baked pastries filled with ground sesame and lotus seeds or dates. Banquets originating in the imperial tradition are ceremonial meals common to important state gatherings and business occasions. They usually are held at restaurants and consist of ten or more courses. Rice is not served, as it is considered too cheap and commonplace for such an event.

Basic Economy. In 1978, the country began the slow process of shifting from a Soviet-style economy to a more free market system, and in twenty years managed to quadruple the gross domestic product (GDP) and become the second largest economy in the world. However, the decentralization of the economy has often conflicted with the tight reign exercised by the highly centralized political system. The economy is burdened with widespread corruption, bureaucracy, and large state-run businesses that have been unable to keep pace with economic expansion. Inflation rates, which rose steeply in the 1980s, fell between 1995 and 1999 as a result of stricter monetary policies and government control of food prices. While the economy appears to be improving, the standard of living in rural areas remains poor, and the government faces problems collecting taxes in provinces that are becoming increasingly autonomous, such as Shanghai and Guangzhou.

The labor force consists of 700 million people, of whom 50 percent work in agriculture, 24 percent in industry, and 26 percent in services. The unemployment rate is roughly 10 percent in the cities and higher in the countryside. A large number of migrants move between the villages and the cities, barely supporting themselves with part-time jobs and day labor. The national currency is named the yuan.

One of the largest economic challenges has been feeding the enormous population. The government has taken a two-pronged approach, instituting a series of modernization projects to improve irrigation and transportation and trying to curb population growth by allowing each family to have only one child. The one-child law, which does not apply to minority groups, has faced widespread popular resistance.

Land Tenure and Property. One of Mao's priorities was a program of land reform. He turned over the previous sharecropper-like system and in its place established collective, government-run farms. Deng did away with many of the large-scale communes. While safeguarding the system of government-owned land, he allowed individual farmers to rent land and gave them more freedom in decision making. This shift saw a large increase in agricultural productivity output doubled in the 1980s.

While farmers and other individuals have much more control over their land than in the past, the majority of it is still owned by the government.

Commercial Activities. Much commercial activity revolves around agriculture. Products vary from region to region. The main goods produced for domestic sale are rice, wheat, soybeans, fruits, and vegetables. From 1958 to 1978, all farms were run as communes and were required to sell all of their output to the government at predetermined prices. Today, farmers still must sell a portion of the yield to the government, but the rest goes on the open market where supply and demand determine the price. In government stores, there is no negotiating of prices, but the increasing numbers of privately owned shops often welcome bargaining.

There is a large black market in foreign goods such as cigarettes, alcohol, and electronic products. Connections (called guanxi ) are of supreme importance in acquiring such goods. It is not uncommon for products made in state-owned factories for sale by the government to find their way into private stores.

Hong Kong, with a fully capitalist economy, developed under British rule into an international financial center. The main commercial activities there are banking and high-technology product and services.

Major Industries. The larger industries include iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, and consumer electronics. Metallurgy and machine building have received top priority in recent years and account for about one-third of industrial output. In these, as in other industries, the country has consistently valued quantity in production over quality, and this is reflected in many of the products. Tourism, which increased during the 1980s, fell sharply after Tiananmen Square however, it has picked up again as the economy has continued to open to Western investors.

Trade. China imports machinery and equipment, plastics, chemicals, iron and steel, and mineral fuels, mainly from Japan, the United States, Taiwan, and South Korea. Exports include machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods, mineral fuels, and chemicals. These products go primarily to the United States, Hong Kong, Japan, and Germany. Trade has shifted dramatically over the years. In the 1950s, the main trading partners were other communist countries however, the decline of the Soviet Union as a world power changed that. Most trade today is conducted with the noncommunist world.

Division of Labor. Initially, under communism, urban workers were assigned jobs by the government. Wages were predetermined and did not reward productivity. That system was modified in 1978 and again in 1986 to allow for wage increases and firings in relation to productivity. Under Deng Xiaoping, people were encouraged to develop their entrepreneurial skills as shopkeepers and taxi drivers and in other small business ventures. Older people often become caretakers for their young grandchildren. Many continue to engage in community work and projects.


Conclusion

With historical narrative and comparison methods, this article has reviewed the development of environmental history and historical geography in China. The origins and main research interests of these two subjects are also discussed. It concludes that though both of them put the relation between the earth and human society as their priority and is closely related with each other, they belong to different subject. The findings of historical geographers can provide origins, processes and causes of environmental crises to help environmental historians to construct their stories which will help today’s people understand how human activities in the past as well as in the present have affect the Earth’s environment and how they should do to prevent further deterioration of the our environment.


Geography of China - History

Количество зарегистрированных учащихся: 13 тыс.

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This Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) will offer the participants an introduction into contemporary geopolitics, starting from the origins of classical geopolitics and continuing the discussion with the deep analysis of the examined country-cases, including the US, Russia, and China. Combined with small tests, based on the video’s and recommended readings, the participants will be encouraged to dive into the complex theories and phenomena and get familiar with the concepts that are still very relevant in the contemporary world.

Рецензии

Excellent treatment of the subject from the perspective slightly different from the western world. Learned a lot as it organized scattered readings in geopolitics.

This course was information dense and has helped to shed light on a number of issues that occur today in Global Politics such as the middle eastern conflict.

History and Geography of China

As China seems to be emerging as the new global power, it is essential to understand the logic behind its recent ascendance in the global arena. This module observes how geopolitical considerations contributed to shaping both the historical background and modern political objectives of the Chinese state.

Преподаватели

Andrei Skriba

Текст видео

Hello and welcome back to my geopolitics course. Today our lecture is dedicated to China, and to begin with, let's answer the question why China is so important nowadays, Historically, as we remember, China was not among the states that had geopolitical thinking or that participated in geopolitical competition actively. Today however, when we're speaking about China, we make several statements that allow us to think about China as potential very active player on the world map. First of all, China is the most populated state that has rather big territory. China, if we remember, the world map combines continental, and maritime characteristics. It has huge continental territory, and on the other hand, it has access to the world's ocean. It has number one or number two economy in the world, depending on whether we consider purchasing power parity or not, and China is becoming more, and more active today, active globally when speaking about Chinese economic activity, and even political or military activity in the recent years. Today, we know China as a unified, and a very centralized state. However, it didn't look like this always, and it's statehood dates back to the year 221 before Christ when the first united Chinese empire was created by the Emperor Qin Shi Huang. Before this year, there was a plenty of warring kingdoms, and this period in Chinese history is called the period of warring kingdoms. In the year 221 before Christ, The Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty in the history of China, unified China was established, and this is how the first Chinese state looked like. As you see, to compare it with the present-day China, it was much smaller, and it was concentrated in the eastern part of the country. In the next 2000 years, the history of China can be described as a period of dynasties that replaced each other. This history is usually called by scholars, dynastic cycles, because there was a period of one dynasty that flourished then it broke up, and the country entered the period of civil war among different parts of the country. Then in [inaudible] that united the country again, and flourished and declined, and this process repeated again, and again. In this picture, you may see this dynastic cycles throughout the history of China until the beginning of the 20th century when the last Chinese Dynasty was overthrown, and replaced with a more contemporary Chinese government. Throughout the history, the Chinese steed expanded and each dynasty tried to conquer new lands in the west, in the north, and south of the country. However, it was only the last dynasty, the Qing dynasty, that reached the level of territorial expansion equal to the present day China. You can see is territorial acquisitions in this map. Now let's speak about geography of the Chinese state. There are several characteristics of its geography, and we will start with the first one, which is continental. China is partly a continental state because of its large territory that covers a lot of space in Central Asia and East Asia. In its territorial expansion, China had the logic that was fairly similar to the Russian logic of expansion to Siberia, and to the far east. Historically, Chinese people, the so-called Han ethnic group, lived in the eastern part of the country near the sea coast. In this map, you can see the concentration of the Chinese people in this part of the country. So the other territories deeper in the continent were needed to bring border away from the capital of the country, and from the main series of economic activity, and by these to secure the so-called Chinese heartland by adding to the contrary, the so-called Chinese buffer regions inhabited by non-Chinese ethnic groups. The fact the Chinese people historically lived in the eastern part of the present-day China can be easily explained by geography. First of all, in the eastern part of the country, there is access to the world ocean, and the ability of the people to trade with each other, and with other countries. Second, the eastern part of the country is covered with rivers, and is favorable for agricultural activity. While if we look at the central, and even at the western part of the country, it is covered with steps or with mountains, which makes it very difficult for living activity of economic activity of people. As long as Chinese people historically lived in the eastern part of the country, and their economic activity was about trade with other countries, and with each other, China can be called as a coastal or maritime country. Even today, if you look at this map, the concentration of Chinese people, and the concentration of economic activity of the country is still in the eastern regions, and this makes China also not only a continental power, but also potentially very strong maritime power. Deeply involved into international trade, trade relations with other countries, and therefore security issues in the sea. The concentration of population, and of economic activity in the eastern regions of the country made it possible for some scholars to draw these maps, and to call the Chinese core the so-called Chinese island surrounded by the oceans of territories that are not so inhabited and with a very low level of economic activity. In the recent couple of decades, Chinese government tries to change the situation, and invest more, and more money into his inner regions. However, it is a very long process, and still when we're speaking about the most developed industrial regions, and mega policies of the country, we usually mean the eastern part of China. The last characteristics is a combination of Chinese history, and geography. From the geographical point of view, China is separated from many other parts of the world. For example, it is separated by the Himalayas mountain chains from India, and the rest of South Asia by steps and Siberia from Europe and by Pacific Ocean from the American continents. In the previous centuries, these were very strong obstacles for Chinese traders to reach the other states. Historically however, there was one more reason of the so-called inner region of China. China was so populated, and China had so huge domestic market that it did not really need to travel abroad to travel far, and to look for new trade contacts. Even more, the Chinese emperors historically were very focused on their own country, and they believed that China was already located in the center of the world. So China did not have its own Chinese of age of exploration, and it did not invest a lot of money into traveling abroad, and establishment of new relations with other countries. Rather, it was concentrated on each relations in the region of East and South East Asia. Ultimately, when we're speaking about China, we mean large territory with numerous resources. We remember that the larger the territory of the country, the more resources it potentially has. In case of china, it is especially true. China has a lot of resources like metals, oil, gas, coal, and so on. China has continental logic of expansion in the West. It brought its borders far from the economic, and ethnic core of the country, and by this contributed to security of this core. However, the concentration of Chinese population, and economic activity in the east, and coastal provinces of the country, and that is why China is not only a continental, but also a very active maritime power, historically involved into international or at least regional trade in the region of East and South East Asia. The fact that China did not go far beyond its own region is explained by the concept of Middle Kingdom. The self identification as the country in the middle of the world that is actually not so interested in traveling far, and there is waiting for the other countries to come here, and to establish friendly relations.


Geography of China - History




During the Northern Song period some internal rebellions and upheavals occured, in the map shown by the big yellow dots. These were the rebellions of Wang Xiaobo 王小波 and Li Shun 李順 in 993-995 in modern Sichuan, the famous rebellion of the Liangshan Swamp 梁山泊 by Song Jiang 宋江 in 1119-1121 in the west of modern Shandong (see the novel Shuihuzhuan 水滸傳 "The Water Margin"), and the rebellion of Fang La 方臘 in 1120 in modern Zhejiang.
The neighbouring states of the Northern Song empire were Vietnam (Lý Dynasty 李), Dali 大理 in the region of modern Yunnan, and Jinglong 景曨 in the south, Korea (Koryŏ 高麗) was governed by a house descendant of the old Silla Empire 新羅. The north was occupied by the empire of Liao, the border to which was located south of modern Beijing. The upper course of the Yellow River and the Gansu corridor were controlled by the Tangutan empire of Western Xia. More to the west, in modern Xinjiang, were the communities of the Western Uyghurs (Xizhou Huigu 西州回鶻), the Yellow Head Uighurs 黃頭回鶻, and the empire of the Qara Qans 黑汗 "Black Khans" that expanded into the Tarim Basin and the Junggar Basin.




When the Song court fled to the south in 1127, trying to escape the army of the Jurchens that had founded the Jin empire 金 (1115-1234) in the north, they established a new capital in the lower Yangtze area: Lin'an fu 臨安府 (Hangzhou 杭州, Zhejiang). During the 150 years of the Southern Song period there several military campaigns were undertaken between Jin and Song China.
Like before, the largest administration unit of the Song empire was the circuit (lu 路), but much of the territory was lost to the Jurchens, and many prefectures were elevated to the status of superior prefectures. Industrial prefectures were almost given up.
For the first time in Chinese history, not only peasants or religious leaders undertook uprisings against the ruling dynasty, but under the Southern Song, salt workers and tea traders rebelled. During the 1130es and 1140es the whole southeast was permanently shaken by uprisings, the most important being the rebellion of Zhong Xiang 鍾相 in 1130 around the Dongting Lake 洞庭湖, modern Hunan, and that of Luo Shichuan 羅世傳 in 1208 in the south of modern Jiangxi.
When the Jurchens conquered the Liao empire and the northern border prefectures of the Song empire, part of the elite of the Liao dynasty fled to the west, where they founded the Western Liao empire 西遼 (1124-1218). In the early 13th century Činggis Qaɣan was able to unite the steppe tribes and to forge a powerful federation that should conquer the empires of Western Liao, Jin and Western Xia, and finally that of the Southern Song.


Geography

China is bordered to the north by Russia and Mongolia to the east by Korea (Dem Rep), the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea to the south by Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, India, Bhutan and Nepal and to the west by India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. China has a varied terrain ranging from high plateaux in the west to flatlands in the east mountains take up almost one-third of the land.

The most notable high mountain ranges are the Himalayas, the Altai Mountains, the Tian Shan Mountains and the Kunlun Mountains. On the border with Nepal is the 8,848m (29,198ft) Mount Qomolangma (Mount Everest). In the west is the Qinghai/Tibet Plateau, with an average elevation of 4,000m (13,200ft), known as 'the Roof of the World'. At the base of the Tian Shan Mountains is the Turpan Depression or Basin, China's lowest area, 154m (508ft) below sea level at the lowest point. China has many great river systems, notably the Yellow (Huang He) and Yangtze River (Chang Jiang, also Yangtze Kiang). Only 10% of all China is suitable for agriculture.


Transportation

  • Wuhan Tianhe International Airport is one of the busiest in the central part of the country.
  • 6 bridges and 1 tunnel across the Yangtze River
  • 2 major regular train stations in Hankou and Wuchang
  • The Guangzhou-Wuhan High Speed train is one of the fastest in the world and can reach a speed of 394 km/h.
  • A network of 4 ring roads: these are not complete rings. to the Three Gorges Dam and Chongqing are available for sightseeing.

The geography of China isolated it from other cultures because there were the Himalayan Mountains, the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, the Taklimakan Desert, and the Gobi Desert. Cold climates also kept invaders out. These physical features made Inner China a better place to settle down and grow crops.

Perhaps the two most important geographical features of Ancient China were the two major rivers that flowed through central China: the Yellow River to the north and the Yangtze River to the south. These major rivers were a great source of fresh water, food, fertile soil, and transportation.


Watch the video: Geography of China (February 2023).

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