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Short Sunderland III

Short Sunderland III


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Short Sunderland III

The Short Sunderland III was produced in larger numbers than any other version of the aircraft, accounting for 463 of the total of 749 Sunderlands that were built. The main change introduced on the Mk III was the use of a faired main step on the bottom of the fuselage. This reduced the drag caused by the boat hull by ten percent, but did have some impact on the aircraft’s handling in water.

The prototype Mk III, a converted Mk I, made its first flight on 28 June 1941, and the first production aircraft flew on 15 December 1941. At first the Mk III was very similar to the Mk II, with the same guns and ASV II radar. Early in 1943 ASV.Mk III radar was installed. This was based on the centimetric H2S radar used by Bomber Command, and unlike the ASV II radar could not be detected by the U-boats. The last batch of Sunderland IIIs was given ASV.Mk IVc radar, which replaced the Yagi aerials with under-wing split scanners in protective radomes. Later Sunderland IIIs were also give a battery of four fixed 0.303in machine guns in the nose, to counter the increasingly powerful anti-aircraft armament carried by the U-boats.

The Sunderland III was produced at all four factories involved in Sunderland production – 186 were produced by Shorts at Rochester, 35 on Windermere and the rest at Belfast and Dumbarton. The Mk III was the last significant version of the Sunderland – the Mk IV evolved into the Seaford and never entered service, while the Mk V did not appear until 1945, by which time the battle of the Atlantic had been won.

Engine: Four Bristol Pegasus XVIII
Power: 1,050hp
Span: 112ft 9in
Length: 85ft 4in
Height: 34ft 6in
Max speed: 210mph
Ceiling: 17,200ft
Loaded Weight: 58,000lb
Armament: Two 0.303in in nose turret, four in tail turret and three in dorsal turret; four fixed 0.303in guns added to nose in later aircraft
Bomb load: 2,000lb on retractable racks


The Tragic Death Of Prince George, Duke Of Kent

Prince George, Duke of Kent died in a plane crash on what should've been an uneventful flight from England to Iceland on August 25, 1942, when he was just 39 years old. However, since all documentation of the crash long since disappeared, according to The Rake, mystery and conspiracies have shrouded the death of the royal husband and father of three who led a colorful and secretly scandalous life.

Prince George was one of six children of King George V and Mary of Teck. His siblings included Prince Edward VIII, who abdicated the throne to marry a twice-divorced American woman named Wallis Simpson, and King George VI, who became King in Edward's stead. King George VI was Queen Elizabeth II's father. To simplify, Prince George, Duke of Kent, was Queen Elizabeth's II's uncle.

According to Herald Extra, Prince George was considered a womanizer who was also bi-sexual, with a rotating cast of lovers from both genders. The press at that time, however, did not publicize those kinds of royal indiscretions. The Rake reported Prince George had multiple illegitimate children and he dealt with drug problems, including addictions to morphine and cocaine.

When he finally settled down and married his second cousin, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, in 1934, he was rumored to have continued his dalliances with both men and women, to the dismay of his royal parents, the King and Queen of England.


Contents

Background Edit

At the height of the Second World War, it was recognised that the UK's flagship airliner, the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), required new aircraft in its inventory. [1] It was promptly recognised that, as the Short Sunderland military flying boats operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF) bore considerable similarities to the Short Empire, a civilian flying boat, there was few challenges posed by converting excess Sunderlands for civil purposes if deemed necessary. Accordingly, during December 1942, work started on six Sunderland IIIs from Short's Rochester works, stripping them of their armaments and military fittings, being instead refitted for airline purposes, having austere bench-type seats installed within the cabin along with civil markings and registrations across their exteriors.. [1] On 26 December 1942, the first of the conversions performed its maiden flight. After being delivered to BOAC, these flying boats were quickly used on the airline's Poole-West Africa service, transporting both passengers and air mail alike. [1]

The initial batch having been determined to be satisfactory, a further six Sunderlands were converted for similar purposes in 1943, along with a further batch of 12 during the following year. [2] [3] Following the end of the Second World War, BOAC opted to convert its Sunderlands to a less-austere standard, making them more suitable for peace-time operations they became known as the Short Hythe. Specific changes including the replacement of the somewhat primitive bench seats with individual seats, initially permitting up to sixteen passengers to be accommodated on one deck in the initial H.1 configuration. Improved models, such as the H.2 variant, featured the addition of a promenade deck, while the H.3 configuration, featured an additional eight seats. Up to 6,500 pounds (2,900 kg) of mail could also be carried. Engines were standardised as the Bristol Pegasus 38. [4] [5]

Post-war conversions Edit

Even prior to the end of the conflict, it has been identified that, while the converted Sunderlands had proved to be successful, there were areas for improvement. [6] Specifically, the temporary and somewhat basic fairings implemented to cover turret positions could be replaced by more sophisticated low-drag counterparts to improve aerodynamic efficiency. Deciding to proceed with this work, in November 1945, Shorts flew a thus refined conversion of BOAC's Sunderlands from their Rochester works. [6] Along with the revised low-drag fairings on both the nose and tail, it benefitted from a refurbished interior this flying boat was referred to as the Sandringham it subsequently became known as the Sandringham 1 to distinguish it from the more advanced conversions which later followed it. [7]

During January 1946, a certificate of airworthiness was issued for the Sandringham I, it entered service with BOAC in June of that year after completing operational trials with RAF Transport Command. [6] Around this time, BOAC opted to have all of its Sunderlands refurbished to a standard akin to contemporary airliners. Shorts had envisioned BOAC issuing a prompt order for Sandringhams, but the first order for the type came from the Argentinian airline Compañía Argentina de Aeronavegación Dodero instead. [8] The airline had been keen to procure Sunderlands were its South American intercity routes, and had been impressed by information provided by Shorts on the Sandringham conversation. Ordered in two batches, one for short-haul routes and the other for longer distances, the first Sandringham II was launched to great ceremony at Belfast on 17 November 1945. [8]

There were several differences between the Sandringham I and the following production flying boats. While the first prototype had retained the Pegasus engines, common to both the Sunderland III and Hythe, later models of the Sandringham, which were converted by Short and Harland Ltd at Belfast Harbour, were based on the later Sunderland V, which were instead powered by Pratt & Whitney "Twin Wasp" engines. [9] Every Sandringham was converted from surplus Sunderlands that had been formerly operated by RAF Coastal Command. [7]

During 1963, an additional conversion of a former Royal New Zealand Air Force Sunderland V was carried out by Ansett to a similar standard to the Sandringham. This aircraft, named Islander, was fitted with a 43-seat interior. [10] Its conversion had been necessitated following the loss of an earlier Sandringham due to a cyclone that had torn it from its moorings. [11]

The converted Sunderlands commenced operations with BOAC on its route between Poole Harbour, Dorset and Lagos, Nigeria, in March 1943. [4] [1] Following a proving flight to British India, the Sunderlands were transferred in October 1943 to flights between Poole and Karachi, via Gibraltar and Cairo. As Egypt was under military control, the aircraft were given military serial numbers and operated as part of RAF Transport Command. [2] [12] The service was extended to Calcutta in May 1944, while VE-Day, the end of the war in Europe, allowed the aircraft reverted to BOAC control. They continued on the India route, which was extended again to Rangoon in Burma following VJ-Day. [6]

During 1946, BOAC's fleet of Hythes commenced long distance flights to Australia on 12 May 1946, the Poole–Sydney route, which were operated in conjunction with the Australian airline Qantas, commenced. In August of that year, BOAC's Hythes were also deployed on services to Hong Kong on what was known as the Dragon route. [5] [8]

It was in 1946 that the initial production models of the Sandringham proved themselves to be capable performers in the South American market. [13] Multiple airlines in Argentina, as well as the Chilian airline Compañía Aeronáutica Uruguaya, became early operators of the type. The Argentian airline Aerolíneas Argentinas would operate Sandinghams in a passenger capacity up until 1962, after which they saw use as freighters in the region up until the late 1960s. [14]

In 1946, BOAC recognised that its existing fleet of flying boats was insufficient to perform all of the routes it envisioned, thus the airline placed its first order for the Sandringham. [15] During the following year, the Sandringham 5 was introduced into service with BOAC, which referred to it as the "Plymouth class" and operated it mainly the company's Far East routes from Southampton via Alexandria to Hong Kong and Tokyo. The type quickly proved to be both reliable and popular with the travelling public, leading to BOAC ordering the improved Sandringham 6, which it called the Bermuda Class, in 1948. [16] However, these operations were quickly overshadowed by other developments, with BOAC chosing to replace its flying boats on several routes with land-based Lockheed Constellation airliners during 1949.

The New Zealand-based airline TEAL was another early operator of the Sandringham, using it primarily on the Auckland to Sydney route as well as flights to various Pacific Islands. [15] The airline opted to discontinue Sandringham operations on 19 December 1949, selling its fleet onto other airlines. [17] In 1950, Qantas introduced the first of five aircraft which flew from the Rose Bay flying boat base on Sydney Harbour to destinations in New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Fiji, New Guinea and Lord Howe Island two of these were purchased from TEAL and the other three were purchased from BOAC. Qantas kept its Sandringhams in regular service through to 1955. [18]

The Sandringham was used by Ansett Flying Boat Services on the Sydney (Rose Bay) to Lord Howe Island scheduled service until 1974. One of Ansett's Sandringhams was converted from a S-25 Sunderland previously owned by the Royal New Zealand Air Force. The Sandringham was also operated by the Norwegian airline DNL – Norwegian Airlines between 1946 and 1952 on the domestic service from Oslo to Tromsø. This customer's small fleet was specially equipped with flying in cold prevailing conditions, although services had to be halted during the winter regardless they also featured the same Air-to-Surface Vessel radar sets as fitted to the wartime Sunderland V for navigation purposes, helping the crew avoid mountainsides and safely operate from the fjords. [17]

In October 1954, Captain Sir Gordon Taylor flew his newly acquired Sandringham 7 from the UK to Australia to begin a series of flying boat cruises of the south Pacific. The aircraft later passed to Réseau Aérien Interinsulaire in Tahiti and is presently stored at the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace at Paris Le Bourget.

One of the last operators of the Sandringham was Antilles Air Boats in the Virgin Islands of the Caribbean which flew the aircraft in scheduled passenger service into the 1970s with flights from the Charlotte Amalie Harbor Seaplane Base on St. Thomas and the Christiansted Harbor Seaplane Base on St. Croix among other destinations. [19]


Short Sunderland III - History

name: Royal Canadian Air Force - RCAF
country: Canada
ICAO code: CFC
Founded: 1924

109 occurrences in the ASN safety database, showing occurrence 1 - 10

date type registration operator fat. location pic cat
15001 RCAF 0 Trenton Cana. O1
13803 RCAF 0 near Inuvik, NT A2
140103 RCAF 0 Greenwood Ca. A2
144601 RCAF 0 near Tampa-Mac Di. A2
130342 RCAF 0 Key West NAS. A1
9413 RCAF 0 Duke of York. A1
115461 UN, opb RCAF 9 near Dimas C1
9411 RCAF 1 near Baudette, MN A1
9410 RCAF 0 McKenzie Lak. A1
9419 RCAF 0 near Montreal-St. A1
11153 RCAF 0 Montreal-Dor. O1
10309 RCAF 6 near Trenton Cana. A1
971 RCAF Greenwood Ca. U1
3678 RCAF 3 El Kuntilla A1
9302 RCAF 5 near Hope Slide, BC A1
10304 RCAF 0 North Battle. A1
5324 RCAF 0 Srinagar Air. C1
20727 RCAF 16 near Puerto Rico A1
9697 RCAF 8 near Marville RCA. A1
KN278 RCAF 3 Pierce Lake, SK A1
17520 RCAF 0 near Hall Beach A. A1
9414 RCAF 0 Saint-Hyacin. A1
9401 RCAF 0 Guelph Airpo. A1
22127 RCAF 0 Camp Tuto A1
11041 RCAF 1 near Prince Ruper. A1
17525 RCAF 0 Athens-Ellin. A1
975 RCAF 5 near Cutigliano, . A1
22128 RCAF 0 near Modena A1
3744 RCAF 0 Gaza Air Base A1
22125 RCAF 0 near Edmonton-Nam. A1
3675 RCAF A1
3684 RCAF 0 Postville, NL A1
3666 RCAF 3 near Goose Bay Ai. A1
22124 RCAF 0 Montreal-Dor. O1
17513 RCAF 0 Montreal-Dor. O1
3687 RCAF Knob Lake A1
9696 RCAF 7 near Marville RCA. A1
11073 RCAF 3 Johnstone St. A1
11095 RCAF 2 Fraser River. A1
991 RCAF unknown A1
17522 RCAF 0 near RAF North Lu. A1
3676 RCAF 0 Sea Island R. O1
3670 RCAF 0 Sea Island R. O1
3672 RCAF 0 Churchill Ai. A1
17503 RCAF 0 Vancouver In. A1
17505 RCAF 0 Shemya AFB, . A1
17501 RCAF 0 Rockliffe-CF. O1
985 RCAF 7 Strait of Ge. A1
984 RCAF St. Hubert R. A1
654 RCAF 3 near Goose Bay Ai. A1
980 RCAF Frobisher Ba. A1
KG416 RCAF 0 Winnipeg-Ste. O1
KG430 RCAF 4 near Goose Bay Ai. A1
17523 RCAF 0 Resolute Air. A1
KG317 RCAF 0 near Summerside A. A1
KJ936 RCAF 0 near Snag, YT A1
11057 RCAF 21 Bigstone Lak. A1
KG635 RCAF Yellowknife, NT A1
987 RCAF 0 near Churchill, MB A1
11081 RCAF 1 Kittigazuit. A1
11063 RCAF near Cambridge Ba. A1
967 RCAF Gander-RCAF . A1
962 RCAF 21 Estevan, SK A1
986 RCAF Goose Bay, NL A1
KG397 RCAF 8 near Warlingham A1
FL636 RCAF 7 Mount Ptolem. A1
KG310 RCAF 0 near Wien-Schwech. A1
KG439 RCAF 4 Purley, Surrey A1
KG433 RCAF 4 Down Ampney . A1
11043 RCAF 1 Coal Harbour. A1
JX435 RCAF 9 near Cocos (Keeli. A1
FZ583 RCAF 3 Sulphur Moun. A1
KN563 RCAF 5 near Khamti A1
11076 RCAF 0 Morhiban Lak. A1
11066 RCAF near Iceland A1
9701 RCAF 4 Saanich Inle. A1
NJ183 RAF, op.for RCAF 11 Knocknagor, . A1
11007 RCAF 0 near Tofino, BC A1
978 RCAF Biggin Hill . A1
11065 RCAF Reykjavik A1
11061 RCAF 8 near Reykjavik A1
ML883 RCAF 0 near Calshot O1
11086 RCAF 9 Clayquot, Va. A1
KJ855 RCAF near Kabirwala, P. A1
11017 RCAF 10 near Tofino, BC A1
11022 RCAF 3 Patricia Bay. A1
KG422 RCAF Ypres Advanc. A1
KG489 RCAF 4 Everse C1
FZ596 RCAF 0 near British Colu. A1
966 RCAF near Sea Island, BC A1
11011 RCAF 0 Satellite Ch. A1
11062 RCAF 7 Foula Island. A1
9754 RCAF 3 near Shetland Isl. C1
9842 RCAF 7 Reykjavik A1
9816 RCAF 3 near Faroe Island. C1
11019 RCAF A1
DV990 RAF, op.for RCAF 12 near Kristiansund. C1
FZ576 RCAF 2 near Port Hardy A. A1
9809 RCAF near Keflavik A1
FL650 RCAF 3 near British Colu. A1
FZ581 RCAF Patricia Bay. A1
W6028 RAF, op.for RCAF 2 Trory Cross. A1
9786 RCAF unknown A1
W6013 RAF, op.for RCAF 9 Knocklayd Mo. A1
W6031 RAF, op.for RCAF 11 near Vigo, Spain C1
9834 RCAF 7 Botwood, NL A1
9789 RCAF 1 Denny Island. A1
557 RCAF 3 near Gander Airpo. A1
9807 RCAF 6 Gander-RCAF . A1
9737 RCAF 5 near Gander Lake, NL A1


O princípio da década de 1930 viu uma intensa competição para o desenvolvimento de hidroaviões de longo curso para o transporte intercontinental de passageiros. O Reino Unido não tinha nenhum equivalente aos novos e famosos hidroaviões Sikorsky S-42 dos Estados Unidos da América. As autoridades britânicas sentiram então a necessidade de fazer algo.

Em 1934 o responsável máximo pelos Correios Britânicos declarou que todo o correio de primeira-classe enviado para o exterior deveria ser transportado por via aérea, efectivando um programa de subsídios ao desenvolvimento dos transportes aéreos intercontinentais, de um modo igual ao que vinha sendo já feito nos Estados Unidos. Em resposta, a Imperial Airways anunciou uma competição entre fabricantes aeronáuticos para desenhar e produzir 28 hidroaviões, cada um pesando 18,2 toneladas, com um alcance de 700 milhas (1.130 Km) e com uma capacidade para 24 passageiros.

O contrato foi quase directamente para a Short Brothers. Apesar da Short há muito vir construindo hidroaviões, tanto civis como militares, nenhum deles tinha o tamanho e a sofisticação requeridas. A empresa iniciou então um programa acelerado para obter um projecto de hidroavião mais avançado do que alguma vez tinha construído.

Enquanto que o primeiro dos Short Empire (denominação atribuída aos novos hidroaviões) estava ainda em desenvolvimento, os militares britânicos estavam já a fazer diligências para o que seria a versão militar dos grandes hidroaviões da Short. Um especificação do Ministério do Ar britânico de 1933 requeria um hidroavião monoplano ou biplano, para reconhecimento oceânico, com quatro motores.

O S.25 partilhava a maioria das suas características com o S.23. A mais notável diferença entre os dois era a maior profundidade do perfil do casco do S.25. Tal como o S.23, a fuselagem do Suderland incluía dois conveses com seis beliches no inferior, uma galeria com dois fogões portáteis a querosene, instalações sanitárias, uma grua de ancoragem e uma pequena oficina para reparações em vôo. Originalmente estava prevista uma tripulação de sete, mas aumentada mais tarde para onze ou mais.

A aeronave era totalmente construída em metal, com excepção da maioria das superfícies de controlo que eram construídas com um quadro metálico, coberto por tela.

As grossas asas suportavem quatro motores Bristol Pegasus XXII e acomodavam seis tanques de combustível, com capacidade para 9.200 litros. Quatro tanques de combustível menores foram posteriormente acrescentados atrás da longarina da asa para aumentar a capacidade total de combustível para 11.602 litros, permitindo uma autonomia de voo de entre 8 a 14 horas.

A especificação requeria um armamento ofensivo composto por um canhão de 37 mm e até 900 kg de bombas, minas marítimas ou cargas de profundidade. As bombas ficavam armazenadas dentro da fuselagem em suportes colocados sob a secção central da asa, que podiam ser deslocados para a sua posição ofensiva através das portas existentes nas laterais do compartimento de bombas. [ 1 ] O armamento defensivo incluía uma torre de cada lado da cauda, cada uma com quatro metralhadoras Browning. Durante a II Guerra Mundial o "porco-espinho voador ". (Fliegende Stachelschweine) [ 2 ] como era chamado pelos alemães, destacou-se no combate a submarinos. [ 3 ] O Short Sunderland foi tão bem sucedido que inspirou a criação do hidroavião japonês Kawanishi H8K. [ 4 ]


Användning [ redigera | redigera wikitext ]

Under slaget om Storbritannien bombades Short Brothers farbrik i Rochester varvid flera Stirlings förstördes och fabriken skadades såpass att produktionen försenades med flera månader. Därför var det först 10 februari 1941 som Stirlings sattes in i strid första gången i ett anfall mot Tyska flottans bränsledepå i Rotterdam. Att vingarna kortats till 30 meter gjorde att flygplanen inte kunde stiga särskilt högt, många uppdrag genomfördes på bara 4𧄀 meters höjd, vilket gjorde dem sårbara för luftvärnseld. Under de första fem månaderna gick 67 av totalt 84 levererade flygplan förlorade. I synnerhet anfall mot mål i norra Italien var bekymmersamma då flygplanen var tvungna att flyga genom, snarare än över, Alperna. En annan nackdel var att sektionsindelningen av bombutrymmet gjorde att inga bomber tjockare än 48 cm (19 tum) fick plats. Att Stirling var fem meter längre än Lancaster och Halifax gav högre rodermoment vilket i kombination med den tjocka vingen gjorde flygplanet väldigt lättmanövrerat. Stirlingpiloterna märkte förtjust att de kunde utmanövrera de tyska nattjaktflygplanen Ju㻘 och Me𧅮. [ 2 ]

Från och med december 1943 slutade RAF att flyga bombuppdrag med Short Stirlings. I stället blev uppgifterna att fälla minor utanför tyska hamnar, bogsera lastglidflygplan samt fälla fallskärmsjägare och spioner med fallskärm. I synnerhet under invasionen av Normandie och operation Market Garden utgjorde Stirlings en viktig del av lufttransportförmågan. [ 2 ]

Efter kriget såldes ett antal Stirlings till Egyptens flygvapen och även ett antal till Belgien där de byggdes om till passagerarflygplan. Idag finns inget flygplan bevarat, men en grupp entusiaster i England håller på att bygga en replika med många originaldelar som undgått skrotning. [ 3 ]


Short Sunderland

I was digging around in the UK, and realized that there was no custom card for the Short Sunderland flying boat. Just due to its historical record, i figured for sure it deserved some research into making a card for it. They were also often radar equipped for easier ship searching, especially during the night.

Short Sunderland
10 man crew, 4 Engine Long Range Reconnaissance and anti-submarine flying boat.
Speed: 211mph (338kph)
Armament
8x 7.7 Browning machine guns (in nose, dorsal and quad tail turrets)
4950 lbs of bombs, depth charges, or mines.
Range, 2993 mi, or 20 hours of flight time.

btw, did i present this right? Its my first post for a custom card.[/img]

Oct 08, 2009 #2 2009-10-08T19:45

Oct 08, 2009 #3 2009-10-08T21:27

Yes, the information you've gathered looks good to me. We usually like to have a Date Entered Service, and Raevski has been keeping all the stats in metric for ease of comparison, but other than that you've got most of what we're looking for I think.

I had heard, however, that an official Sunderland is probably in the works. If the news of that is pretty solid (does anyone know how solid?) it might be easier just to wait for it to show up.

If you want to push on though, start comparing the data you've collected with the info on the "Stats for WAS cards" sticky. That should help put some WAS values into the mix. And think about SA's that you'd like, if any, beyond the standard Shadowing that seems to go with flying boats.

Oct 08, 2009 #4 2009-10-08T21:51

Keeper of the 2489-unit, 26052-pt Global Horde Fleet of Dooming Death!

If WOTC no longer wants my money, plenty of others still do.

Oct 08, 2009 #5 2009-10-08T23:12

swarbs wrote: I had heard, however, that an official Sunderland is probably in the works. If the news of that is pretty solid (does anyone know how solid?) it might be easier just to wait for it to show up.

If you want to push on though, start comparing the data you've collected with the info on the "Stats for WAS cards" sticky. That should help put some WAS values into the mix. And think about SA's that you'd like, if any, beyond the standard Shadowing that seems to go with flying boats.

Oct 08, 2009 #6 2009-10-08T23:27

Oct 08, 2009 #7 2009-10-08T23:44

Oct 08, 2009 #8 2009-10-08T23:50

Keeper of the 2489-unit, 26052-pt Global Horde Fleet of Dooming Death!

If WOTC no longer wants my money, plenty of others still do.

Oct 21, 2009 #9 2009-10-21T06:47

For stats:
An Emily without the torpedo and shadowing, but perhaps 1 higher ASW, available from 1939.

Shadowing is effectively acting as a FAC - in that your improving the attacks of other aircraft.
That isn't how the Sunderland accounts I have read have them being used.. true they would find and shadow the enemy ships - but usually so that RN ships could intercept/flee. and teh Fulmar now fill the Shadowing role for the FAA.

If not 1 higher ASW then ASW pointer.
but a better ASW for the Sunderland itself would be a better "feel".

Consider a new SA to model.
"On 3 April 1940, a Sunderland operating off Norway was attacked by six German Junkers Ju 88 medium bombers and managed to shoot one down, damage another enough to send it off to a forced landing and drove off the rest."
and
"The rifle calibre .303 guns lacked hitting power but the Sunderland retained its reputation for being able to take care of itself. This reputation was enhanced by an air battle between eight Ju 88C long range heavy fighters and a single RAAF Sunderland Mark III of No. 461 Squadron RAAF on 2 June 1943. This battle was one of several stories of the type's operations related by author Ivan Southall, who flew in Sunderlands during the war.[7] There were 11 crewmen on board the Sunderland nine Australians and two British.[8] The crew was on an anti-submarine patrol and also searching for remains of BOAC Flight 777, an airliner that had left Lisbon the day before and subsequently had been shot down over the Bay of Biscay.
In the late afternoon, one of the crew spotted the eight Ju 88s. Bombs and depth charges were dumped while the pilot, Flt. Lt. Colin Walker, "redlined" the engines. Two Ju 88s made passes at the flying boat, one from each side, scoring hits and managing to disable one engine while the Sunderland went through wild "corkscrew" evasive manoeuvres. On the third pass, the dorsal turret gunner managed to shoot one down. Another Ju 88 disabled the tail turret but the next that made a pass was hit by the dorsal and nose turrets and was shot down as well.
Still another attacked, destroying the Sunderland's radio gear, wounding most of the crew in varying degrees and mortally wounding one of the side gunners (Flight Sergeant "Ted" Miles). A Ju 88 tried to attack from the rear but the tail turret gunner had managed to regain some control over the turret and shot it down. The surviving Ju 88s continued to attack but the nose gunner damaged one of these, setting its engines on fire. Two more of the attackers were also hit and the final pair disengaged and departed. Luftwaffe records indicate that the latter were the only two that made it back to base.
The Sunderland was heavily damaged. The crew threw everything they could overboard and nursed the aircraft back to the Cornish coast, where Walker managed to land and beach it at Praa Sands. The crew waded ashore, carrying their dead comrade, while the surf broke the Sunderland up."

Perhaps.
Dangerous target: if a fighter fails to abort or destroy this unit with it's attack then on a 1 the fighter is destroyed.


William III

William III became king of Great Britain after the 1688 Revolution. William, along with his wife Mary II, was crowned on February 13 th 1689 after Parliament had decreed that James II had abdicated the throne and that William should succeed him.

William was born in November 1650 the only child of Prince William II, the Stadtholder of Holland. His mother, Mary Stuart, was the daughter of Charles I. Therefore, William’s credibility in England was cemented by the fact that he himself had a bloodline to the Stuarts. William married Mary, daughter of James II, in 1677. This marriage in its original state was a political union but both became inseparable as their marriage progressed.

Before being asked by senior political figures in England to land with a military force to overthrow James, William had established a good reputation in the United Provinces as a competent military commander. William had saved the United Provinces from being conquered by Louis XIV in the Franco-Dutch War (1672-79) and had helped to govern the state, along with regents. William was seen as a main protector of the Protestant faith in Western Europe and for those in England who believed that James II was pushing the country down the road of Catholicism, William was a natural replacement. It was also useful that William had a bloodline to the Stuarts. His wife Mary had made her Protestant credentials clear, especially when her younger brother was born and a future Catholic king seemed probable.

When William became king of England, leadership of the United Provinces was somewhat left in limbo as a period of ‘stadtholderless’ occurred when the United Provinces was governed by the Grand Pensionary led by Anthonie Heinsius.

“William was thin, weak and solemn, with a Roman eagle nose, and piercing eyes. His constitution had been undermined by a severe attack of smallpox in early manhood, and his chronic asthma gave him a constant deep cough. In war and politics he was an indifferent commander, but his obstinacy in defence, his courage in attack, his willingness to master accepted techniques carried him through.” (J P Kenyon)

As king of England, William wanted to continue his ‘crusade’ against France and Louis XIV.

Domestically, William had to somehow understand what was an alien political system to him. Before the 1688 Revolution, the Whig Party had stood as a single entity. Senior figures in the Whig Party had signed the Invitation to William. Now, in William’s reign, the Whigs split in two – the Court Whigs and the Country Whigs. The Court Whigs, with its leadership known as the Junto, gave their full support to the new king. The Country Whigs remained suspicious of a foreign king and wary of the Court Whigs.

The Tories developed a tentative alliance with the Country Whigs as it was the Court Whigs who found favour at William’s court. For his part, William relied on the 2 nd Earl of Sunderland for advice – though it was usual for William to listen to himself. Sunderland was a non-party man who was not shackled to any of the beliefs and ideas of both the Whigs and Tories. While not a Prime Minister in any sense of the term, Sunderland was seen as the senior political figure in the country and one who served the king as opposed to allowing party politics to shape his views.

“The king valued him (Sunderland) because his loyalty was never seriously in doubt and in their cold appraisal of men and things, their willingness to forsake principal for expediency, and their impatience with fools, they were not unlike. Sunderland’s brazen rudeness also impressed a man who never had much room for flatterers.” (J P Kenyon)

William listened to his few advisors in silence, took an age to weigh up all the possibilities while his advisors waited on – and then came to a decision. Contemporary accounts make it clear that the few advisors who attended William found the whole process – especially the long periods of silence – very disconcerting.

William himself believed that certain areas of government were too important to delegate. He took control of the Treasury, foreign matters and the armed forces. William was also the main driving force behind diplomatic matters in Europe, especially the Grand Alliance against Louis XIV. Few doubted William’s work ethic and on many occasions he worked late into the night on matters of state. William took ownership of certain areas of government simply because he did not fully trust senior politicians who he believed would put a political slant on decision making.

Within government, William divided up political posts among different parties. In this way he hoped to avoid the issue of one party becoming more dominant than others. He also hoped to engender in those who worked for him a greater sense of loyalty to the country than to party or personal beliefs. William’s first ministry was made up of a combination of people with a varied political background (Danby and Sunderland included). However, by 1693, he had moved more to the Whigs as they were more supportive of his European ventures as opposed to the Tories who were not. Over the next few years the Whig dominated government introduced what some have described as a ‘financial revolution’ – measures that have lasted until today. In 1693, a National Debt was created in 1694, the Bank of England was created and in 1696 recoinage was introduced. These were to formally part merge the financial world with Parliament and government for the first time.

There were those politicians who were very wary about such an expansion of government power, especially one based around a standing army led by the king. These men gathered themselves around Robert Harley who founded the New Country Party out of concerned Whigs and Tories. When conflict in Europe died down (around 1697), there seem less of a demand for the reforms brought in by the Whigs and William. In 1698, William pushed to one side the Whigs who had loyally supported him and brought into his political fold the Tories who had previously opposed his foreign policy. When war in Europe broke out again (The War of Spanish Succession), the Tories were dropped and the Whigs once again admitted into government in 1701.

William’s foreign policy was dominated by his campaign against Louis XIV and his supporters. In September 1697, Louis had signed the Treaty of Rijswijk in which France agreed to give up all her territories conquered after 1678 (with the exception of Strasburg) and by which Louis recognised William as the rightful king of England with Anne as his rightful heir. By doing this it appeared as if Louis had abandoned his previous support of the exiled Stuarts. However, war in Europe was reignited by the attempt by France to inherit the Spanish empire. Louis also did not endear himself to William when he announced his support for the ‘Old Pretender’, the son of James II, to be king of England. The War of Spanish Succession required William to formulate a new series of alliances.

He was well on the way to creating a European alliance against Louis XIV when his work was cut short. On February 21st 1702, William was riding in Richmond Park when his horse stumbled on a mole hill. The king was thrown from his horse and he broke a collar bone. His weakened body could not take the shock and William died at Kensington Palace in March 8th 1702.


From Graces Guide

of Queens Island, Belfast, Northern Ireland (1937)

1936 Short Brothers (Rochester and Bedford) and Harland and Wolff agreed to form a new company to build aircraft in Belfast Shorts would own 60 percent of the company the shares would be distributed to existing shareholders Ώ] . It was called Short and Harland. The first products of the new factory were 50 Bristol Bombays followed by 150 Handley Page Hereford bombers.

1937 Aircraft constructors. "Scion" Aircraft. ΐ] . 1200 staff were engaged there Α]

Shorts' work on seaplanes eventually culminated in the Short Sandringham and Short Seaford types, both based on the Empire/Sunderland boats. These flying boats had enough range to operate as a transatlantic airliner but largely served the post-war empire (Commonwealth of Nations) market in competition with 4-engined land planes such as modified Avro Lancasters.

Short's work on the Sunderland won them the contract for the Short Stirling, the RAF's first four-engined bomber. If based on their original submission, essentially a land-based Sunderland with various cleanups, there seems to be no reason to suspect that the Stirling would not have been an excellent heavy bomber. Instead the Air Ministry stipulated a number of bizarre requirements for the plane, allowing it to double as a troop transport for instance, that eventually doomed it as newer designs outperformed it. A high-speed, long-range, four-engined flying-boat, the Short Shetland was built (with Saunders-Roe providing the wings) in 1944, but the war ended before the second prototype was completed. The project continued postwar but was eventually abandoned.

WWII During the Battle of Britain, the Rochester factory was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe and several of the early-run Stirlings and other aircraft were destroyed. From this point on, the Belfast factory became increasingly important as it was thought to be well beyond the range of German bombers. However, Belfast and the aircraft factory were subjected to German aircraft bombing during Easter week 1942. To meet the increased requirement for its aircraft during the war, satellite factories near Belfast were operated at Aldergrove and Maghaberry, producing 232 Stirlings between them. A temporary Shorts factory was established at White Cross Bay, Lake Windermere, which produced 35 Mark III Sunderlands. Also during the war Austin Motors at Longbridge, Birmingham, produced over 600 Stirlings and Blackburn Aircraft, of Dumbarton, Scotland, produced 240 Sunderlands. Also produced Handley Page Herefords.

1943 the Government took over the ownership and management of Shorts under Defence Regulation 78: for the second time (after the nationalisation of the Airship Works in Cardington in 1919) Short Brothers was affected by nationalisation. Oswald Short, who had resigned as Chairman in January of that year, remained as Honorary Life President.

1947 Short and Harland Ltd changed their name to Short Brothers and Harland and decide to acquire parts of Short Brothers (Rochester and Bedford) which had decided to concentrate its activities at Belfast. It was then liquidated Β] . Oswald Short became Life President of the new company.

In 1948 Sealand twin-engined amphibian flying-boat were produced in small numbers.

The Sandringham and Solent flying-boats used by BOAC stemmed from the Sunderland.

They took part in the SC.1 VTOL (jet-lift) research programme, which followed exploratory research by Rolls-Royce. The first free vertical take-off was made October 25, 1958.

The company became heavily involved in production of English Electric Canberra and Bristol Britannia.

From 1963 they built Belfast heavy transports (four turboprops) and Skyvan light piston-engined transports (first flown January 1963).

Twin-turboprop Shorts 330 30-passenger regional airliner flown August 1974, with Sherpa offered as freighter derivative.


Sunderland

“I was going through a lot at the time and dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder,” said Hunter, who lives in Sunderland , England.

Gio was born in England while Claudio was employed by Sunderland .

He later played for Glasgow Rangers, Sunderland and Manchester City.

The Daily Beast calculates the cost of saving teen sailor Abby Sunderland —and the insanity didn't end there.

Laurence Sunderland didn't respond to emails or phone messages requesting comment.

For Magnetic—and for the Sunderland family— Adventures in Sunderland won't be that show.

The party which Sunderland had done so much to serve now held a new pledge for his fidelity.

The resignation of Sunderland had put many honest gentlemen in good humour.

Sunderland had been uneasy from the first moment at which his name had been mentioned in the House of Commons.

Before the close of the year, it found its way from Sunderland and Newcastle to the suburbs of the metropolis.

At Sunderland , the bridge is first lifted by a hydraulic press so as to clear the roadway behind, and is then rolled back.


Watch the video: Sunderland Flying Boat 1940-1949 (December 2022).

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