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Battle of Eurymedon, July or August 190 B.C.

Battle of Eurymedon, July or August 190 B.C.


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Battle of Eurymedon, July or August 190 B.C.

The battle of Eurymedon (or Side) of 190 B.C. was one of two naval battles that marked a turning point in that year's fighting in the war between Rome and Antiochus III. After suffering a naval defeat at Corycus in the previous year, Antiochus had reinforced his fleet in western Asia Minor, and ordered the great Punic general Hannibal to raise a second fleet in Phoenicia.

Antiochus faced a coalition of Rome, Rhodes and Pergamum. His best hope of a naval victory was to divide the allied fleet, and defeat them in detail. Only the first part of this plan would end in success. The allies were aware of the danger from Hannibal, but they could not afford to concentrate all of their ships in the threatened area, for the main Roman army under the Scipio brothers was marching towards the Hellespont, where it would need naval support. Eumenes of Pergamum and his fleet thus had to be posted in the northern Aegean, to support the army. When news reached the Roman and Rhodian fleets that Hannibal was on his way, the Rhodian fleet under Eudamas was sent east to deal with the new threat.

Unfortunately for him, Hannibal’s fleet was designed to defeat the Romans, not the Rhodians. The Romans relied on the quality of their infantry to win their naval battles, grappling and boarding enemy ships. To cope with this tactic Hannibal had constructed a fleet of large warships – his 47 decked ships included three hepteres, four hexeres, thirty penteres and tetreres and ten trieres. In contrast the Rhodian fleet contained 32 tetreres and 4 trieres, and they had no intention of fighting boarding actions.

Instead the resulting battle depended on the skills of the ship’s crews and captains, and here the Rhodians had the advantage. Although Hannibal, on the Syrian left, did well in the early fighting, Apollonius, on the Syrian right, was soon in trouble and had to call for help. As ships responded to this call, Hannibal also found his wing in trouble, and soon both wings of the Syrian fleet were forced to flee.

The exact number of Syrian ships lost is unclear. Livy reports that twenty were undamaged, and mentions two that were lost. At the very least another twenty five much have been damaged, and Hannibal’s fleet was eliminated from the fighting. Eudamas and part of the Rhodian fleet was free to rejoin the main Roman fleet in time to take part in the decisive naval battle of the war, at Myonnesus.


Eighth Air Force Combat Losses

The 8th AF incurred lots of losses during the Second World War. The first official mission flown by the 8th Air Force personnel was four A-20 Havocs (borrowed from the British) to an airfield in Holland (in coordination with other British raids) on July 4th 1942. (Some sources say 6 planes, including the official Air Force records, but the wartime magazine Impact states 4.) Three of the four aircraft were shot down. Two by flak and one by a FW-190 over the channel. They went in low and unescorted to surprise the Germans in conjunction with British raids. Sort of worked. One got shot down over the airfield, one shot down as coming into the airfield to be bombed and as mentioned the third was shot down as it was trying to get back to England. It was a portent of things to come. There is a picture of the raid from the lead aircraft over the German field that is in the Impact magazine article.

Here is an XLS spreadsheet showing all the 8th Air Force missions and targets with losses by date throughout the war. The 8th flew Mission #1 17 August 1942 when 12 B-17s attacked Rouen Marshalling yards and the last mission on 8 May 1945 Mission #986 when 12 B-17s dropped leaflets in Germany.

As wounded Staff Sgt. John Hill was helped from his B-17 bomber after a raid on Jan. 13, 1943, the commander of the 305th Bomb Group, Col. Curtis LeMay came up and said:

"Don't worry, that bullet didn't have your name on it."

"No," replied Hill, "but it had 'To whom it may concern' on it."

The 305th BG (H) nickname was 'The Cocktail Kids.'

American Air Museum at Duxford, United Kingdom The American Air Museum at Duxford holds planes flown by the USA from World War I to modern aircraft. They took all the planes painted in American markings from all the other hangers and moved it to this one in 1998. However, the designer went for style over function so it is EXTREMELY hard to view aircraft in there. Even the ones hanging from the ceiling are hard to view. Very crowded. This view is from the flight line, the main entrance is really on the other side of the glass hanger front.

Glass wall at the American Air Museum, Duxford, England As you walk to the American Air Museum at Duxford they have glass plates etched with plane symbols of the type flown by by that unit during World War Two. Each plane etched on the glass represents 10 aircraft lost by that fighter or bomber group. The glass wall panes are 10 feet high and 6 feet wide and the wall is around 150 feet long.

Number of bombers lost by each heavy bomber group in the 8th Air Force during World War II

These statistics came from the 398th BG newsletter. These numbers match up with what I have seen listed by individual unit histories and in reference books. It also matches up with the wall in front of the American Air Museum before the unit names were worn away by rain.
Bomb GroupStationBomber
Type
Missions
Flown
Losses
34thMendelshamB-1717034
44ShipdhamB-24343153
91BassingbournB-17340197
92PodingtonB-17308154
93HardwickB-24396100
94Bury St. EdmondsB-17324153
95HorhamB-17320157
96Snetterton HeathB-17321189
100Thorpe AbbotsB-17306177
303MoleworthB-17364165
305ChelvestonB-17337154
306ThurieighB-17342171
351PolebrookB-17311124
379KimboltonB-17330141
381RidgewellB-17296131
384Grafton UnderwoodB-17314159
385Great AshfieldB-17296129
388KnettishallB-17306142
389HethelB-24321116
390FramlinghamB-17300144
392WendlingB-24285127
398NuthampsteadB-1719558
401DeenthropeB-1725695
445TibenhamB-2428295
446BungayB-2427358
447RattlesdenB-1725797
448SeethingB-24262101
452Deopham GreenB-17250110
453Old BuckenhamB-2425958
457GlattonB-1723783
458Horsham St. FaithB-2424047
466AttlebridgeB-2423247
467RackheathB-2421229
486SudburyB-1718833
487LavenhamB-1718548
489HalesworthB-2410629
490EyeB-1715840
491MetfieldB-2418747
492North PickenhamB-246412
493DeebachB-1715841
Total 10631 4145

9 Iconic Aircraft From The Battle Of Britain

The Battle of Britain, which raged between July and October 1940, pitted the Royal Air Force against the German Luftwaffe in a duel for air superiority over southern England. Pilots on both sides were at the controls of some of the most iconic aircraft in aviation history, including the Spitfire, Hurricane and Messerschmitt Bf 109.

Here are 9 iconic aircraft of the Battle of Britain:

The Spitfire was the iconic aircraft of the Battle of Britain and became the symbol of British defiance in the air. Designed by Reginald Mitchell, it had an advanced all-metal airframe, making it light and strong. It took longer to build than the Hurricane and was less sturdy, but it was faster and had a responsiveness which impressed all who flew it. Crucially, it was a match for the Luftwaffe’s Messerschmitt Bf 109 and was superior to it at lower altitudes. The Spitfire entered service with No. 19 Squadron at Duxford in August 1938. Production was slow at first, but by September 1940 it was in service with 18 RAF squadrons. Spitfires shot down a total of 529 enemy aircraft, for a loss of 230 of their own.

The Hurricane was the most numerous of RAF Fighter Command’s aircraft during the Battle of Britain, equipping 33 squadrons by September 1940. Its traditional design - a wood and metal framework covered in fabric - was derived from earlier biplane fighters and was essentially out of date despite later improvements. However, it was a stable and rugged aircraft that could be maintained and repaired more easily than the Spitfire. Its limitations meant that, where possible, Hurricane squadrons were directed against enemy bombers while the superior Spitfires dealt with the fighter escorts. Despite its shortcomings, the Hurricane accounted for 656 German aircraft during the Battle of Britain - more than the Spitfire. Between 30 July and 16 September, 404 Hurricanes were destroyed.

Visit IWM Duxford

Join IWM Duxford to mark the 80th anniversary of the Battle of Britain, as we retell the extraordinary story of the Second World War aerial campaign during the summer of 1940.

The Defiant was a two-seat fighter with a four-gun power-operated turret. It had no forward firing armament, which meant it could not shoot down enemy aircraft from behind. It was intended primarily as a bomber interceptor, but the turret fighter concept was outmoded and the extra weight made the aircraft sluggish in combat. In early battles over Dunkirk, Defiants had proved very vulnerable to conventional enemy fighters. RAF Fighter Command rashly sent its two Defiant squadrons - Nos. 141 and 264 - into action in July and August, which resulted in two separate massacres at the hands of the Luftwaffe. As a consequence the aircraft played no further part as a day fighter in the Battle.

The Bf 109 was arguably the best fighter in the world in 1940. It was faster than the Spitfire at high altitude, could dive more rapidly and carried a more effective armament of two cannon and two machine guns. Most Bf 109 pilots had more combat experience than their RAF counterparts, at least at first, which also conferred a major advantage. However, the Messerschmitt did not have the range to fly beyond London and carried only seven seconds worth of cannon ammunition, which limited its operational usefulness. The Luftwaffe started the Battle with about 1,100 Bf 109s and 906 pilots available. Some 650 aircraft were shot down.

The two-seat Bf 110 was designed as a long-range heavy escort fighter or Zerstörer (destroyer). It was fast and well-armed, but lacked manoeuvrability. It was markedly inferior to the more nimble RAF fighters and became a liability when attempting to guard the bomber formations. The Germans were forced to use Bf 109s to escort the Bf 110s. However, the aircraft was more effective when used for low-level attacks against factories and RAF airfields. The Germans failed to see the potential of the Bf 110 in this fighter-bomber role and only one Luftwaffe unit was trained for such work.

The He 111 was the most important of the Luftwaffe's early bombers, but was obsolescent in 1940. Its bomb load of 2,000 kg was insufficient for a strategic bombing campaign and it was slow and poorly armed. Measures to increase its defensive armament proved ineffective and the Heinkel, like other German bomber types, was acutely vulnerable to RAF fighter opposition. In its favour was a structural strength that could soak up punishment – many aircraft managed to return to base with hundreds of bullet holes in their fuselage and flying surfaces.

The Dornier Do 17 - nicknamed the ‘Flying Pencil’ - was based on a pre-war design for a high speed mail plane, which was converted into a bomber by the Nazi air ministry. The Do 17Z became the main production version, equipping three Luftwaffe bomber wings at the height of the Battle of Britain. The aircraft was already virtually obsolete. It was nimble at low altitude but could only carry 1,000 kg of bombs and had a limited range. Like the Heinkel He 111, its defensive armament was weak and losses were severe. In a famous action on 18 August eight Dorniers were shot down and nine damaged in attacks on RAF Kenley, to the south of London. Dornier Do 17 production was terminated in the summer of 1940.

The Junkers Ju 88 was the most modern of Germany’s bombers in 1940. It was designed as a fast medium bomber and first flew in December 1936. However, the promising new design was compromised by Ernst Udet, deputy to the Luftwaffe’s Commander-in-Chief Hermann Göring. Udet demanded that the Ju 88 be capable of dive-bombing. The necessary structural changes increased the aircraft’s weight, which reduced its performance and also delayed production. It proved just as vulnerable to RAF fighters as other Luftwaffe bombers during the Battle of Britain, but later matured into one of the most versatile and important of the Luftwaffe’s aircraft.

The infamous ‘Stuka’ achieved notoriety during the Blitzkrieg triumphs of 1939-1940. Its name derived from an abbreviation of the German term for dive bomber - Sturzkampffleugzeug. The Ju 87 was the chosen weapon of the Luftwaffe High Command, designed to deliver pin-point bombing attacks in a near vertical dive. It was effective during the campaigns in Poland and France, when German forces operated largely in an environment of air superiority. But in the skies over Britain the story was very different. After some initial successes by heavily escorted formations, the Stukas were slaughtered by RAF fighters. On their worst day, 18 August, 12 Ju 87s were shot down and many others damaged or written off in crashes on their return. Such losses meant the aircraft was gradually withdrawn from the battle.


Battle of Eurymedon, July or August 190 B.C. - History

Maps drawn by
Major C.C.J. Bond

Published by Authority of the Minister of National Defence

Roger Duhamel, F.R.S.C., Ottawa, 1966
Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery
©Crown Copyrights reserved

NOTE

In the writing of this volume the author has been given full access to relevant official documents in possession of the Department of National Defence but the inferences drawn and the opinions expressed are those of the author himself, and the Department is in no way responsible for his reading or presentation of the facts as stated.


In the Falaise Gap, August 1944
From a watercolour by Major W.A. Ogilvie, M.B.E.
Men of the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade moving forward through the debris of the German armies.
In the centre is a 7.62-cm. self-propelled gun. Painted on the spot near Ecorches.

The Julian calendar takes effect for the first time on New Year’s Day

In 45 B.C., New Year’s Day is celebrated on January 1 for the first time in history as the Julian calendar takes effect.

Soon after becoming Roman dictator, Julius Caesar decided that the traditional Roman calendar was in dire need of reform. Introduced around the seventh century B.C., the Roman calendar attempted to follow the lunar cycle but frequently fell out of phase with the seasons and had to be corrected. In addition, the pontifices, the Roman body charged with overseeing the calendar, often abused its authority by adding days to extend political terms or interfere with elections.

In designing his new calendar, Caesar enlisted the aid of Sosigenes, an Alexandrian astronomer, who advised him to do away with the lunar cycle entirely and follow the solar year, as did the Egyptians. The year was calculated to be 365 and 1/4 days, and Caesar added 67 days to 46 B.C., making 45 B.C. begin on January 1, rather than in March. He also decreed that every four years a day be added to February, thus theoretically keeping his calendar from falling out of step. Shortly after Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C., Mark Anthony changed the name of the month Quintilis to Julius (July) to honor him. Later, the month of Sextilis was renamed Augustus (August) after his successor.

Celebration of New Year’s Day in January fell out of practice during the Middle Ages, and even those who strictly adhered to the Julian calendar did not observe the New Year exactly on January 1. The reason for the latter was that Caesar and Sosigenes failed to calculate the correct value for the solar year as 365.242199 days, not 365.25 days. Thus, an 11-minute-a-year error added seven days by the year 1000, and 10 days by the mid-15th century.

The Church became aware of this problem, and in the 1570s Pope Gregory XIII commissioned Jesuit astronomer Christopher Clavius to come up with a new calendar. In 1582, the Gregorian calendar was implemented, omitting 10 days for that year and establishing the new rule that only one of every four centennial years should be a leap year. Since then, people around the world have gathered en masse on January 1 to celebrate the precise arrival of the New Year.


Soviet Union Falls

Dec. 25, 1991: Following an unsuccessful Communist Party coup, the Soviet Union is dissolved and Gorbachev resigns. With Ukraine and Belarus, Russia forms the Commonwealth of Independent States, which most former Soviet republics eventually join. Yeltsin begins lifting Communist-imposed price controls and reforms, and, in 1993, signs the START II treaty, pledging nuclear arms cuts. He wins reelection in 1996, but resigns in 1999, naming former KGB agent Vladimir Putin, his prime minister, as acting president.

Dec. 1994: Russian troops enter the breakaway republic of Chechnya to stop an independence movement. Up to 100,000 people are estimated killed in the 20-month war that that ends with a compromise agreement. Chechen rebels continue a campaign for independence, sometimes through terrorist acts in Russia.

March 26, 2000: Vladimir Putin is elected president, and is reelected in a landslide in 2004. Because of term limits, he leaves office in 2008, when his protege Dmitry Medvedev is elected, and serves as his prime minister. Putin is then reelected as president in 2012.

October 23, 2002: About 50 Chechen rebels storm a Moscow theater, taking up to 700 people hostage during a sold-out performance of a popular musical. After a 57-hour standoff, most of the rebels and around 120 hostages are killed as Russian forces storm the building.


Battle of Khe Sanh

The attack finally came on January 21, 1968, when PAVN forces began a massive artillery bombardment of Khe Sanh, hitting the base’s main store of ammunition and destroying 90 percent of its artillery and mortar rounds.

President Lyndon B. Johnson agreed with Westmoreland’s argument that the base should be held at all costs, and U.S. and South Vietnamese forces launched Operation Niagara, a major artillery bombardment of suspected locations of North Vietnamese artillery in the hills surrounding Khe Sanh.

As Johnson, Westmoreland and other officials considered Khe Sanh to be the primary target of the North Vietnamese, they largely ignored signs of a Communist buildup in more urban areas of South Vietnam.


Battle of Eurymedon, July or August 190 B.C. - History

Union Regimental Histories

Massachusetts

10th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Springfield June 21, 1861. Moved to Washington, D.C., July 25-28. Attached to Couch's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, to October, 1861. Couch's Brigade, Buell's (Keyes') Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to September, 1862. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 6th Army Corps, to October, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 6th Army Corps, to January, 1864. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, 6th Army Corps, to July, 1864.

SERVICE.--Duty at Kalorama Heights and Camp Brightwood, Defenses of Washington, D.C., until March, 1862. March to Prospect Hill, Va., March 11-15. Embarked at Alexandria for the Peninsula, Virginia, March 25. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove, near Seven Pines, June 25. White Oak Swamp June 30. Malvern Hill July 1. At Harrison's Landing until August 16. Reconnaissance to Turkey Island August 5-6, and to Haxall's Landing August 8-11. Movement to Alexandria August 16-September 1, thence march into Maryland September 3-18. Battle of Antietam September 18. At Downsville September 18-October 20. Movement to Stafford C. H. October 20-November 18, and to Belle Plains December 5. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Operations at Franklin's Crossing April 29-May 2. Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, May 3. Salem Heights May 3-4. Banks' Ford May 4. Franklin's Crossing June 6-7. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 2-4. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Rappahannock Station November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. At Brandy Station until May 1, 1864. Reconnaissance to Madison C. H. February 27-March 2. Rapidan Campaign May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient at Spottsylvania C. H. May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Line of the Pamunkey June 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 17-19. Ordered home for muster out June 19. Mustered out July 6, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 10 Officers and 124 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 55 Enlisted men by disease. Total 190.

11th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Readville and mustered in June 13, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., June 24. Attached to Franklin's Brigade, Heintzelman's Division, McDowell's Army of Northeast Virginia, to August, 1861. Hooker's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, to October, 1861. 1st Brigade, Hooker's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1864. 4th Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to June, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.--Advance on Manassas, Va., July 16-21, 1861. Battle of Bull Run July 21. Moved to Bladensburg August 10, thence to Budd's Ferry October 27. Duty in that vicinity until April, 1862. Ordered to Fortress Monroe, Va., April 7. Siege of Yorktown, Va., April 16-May 4. Affair at Yorktown April 26 (Cos. "A" and "G"). Battle of Williamsburg May 5. Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove, near Fair Oaks, June 25. Savage Station June 29. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1 and August 5. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Fortress Monroe, thence to Centreville August 15-26. Bristoe Station August 26-27. Kettle Run August 27. Catlett's Station August 28. Groveton August 29. Bull Run August 30. Chantilly September 1. Camp near Fort Lyon until September 13, and near Fairfax Seminary until October 20. At Munson's Hill until November. At Fairfax Station November 2-25. Operations on Orange & Alexandria R. R. November 10-12. Rappahannock Campaign December, 1862, to June, 1863. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. Operations at Rappahannock Bridge and Grove Church February 5-7. At Falmouth until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-4. Wapping Heights July 23. Moved to New York July 30-August 1, and duty there until October. rejoin Corps at Union Mills October 17. Advance to the Rappahannock November 7-8. Kelly's Ford November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Payne's Farm November 27. Duty near Brandy Station until May, 1864. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7. Rapidan Campaign May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Spottsylvania May 8-12, Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient at Spottsylvania G. H. May 12. Harris Farm, Fredericksburg Road, May 19. North Anna River May 23-26. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. (Old members left front June 12. Mustered out June 24, 1864.) Veterans and Recruits consolidated to a Battalion of 5 Companies June 12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23, 1864. Demonstration on north side of the James July 27-29. Deep Bottom July 27-28. Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30 (Reserve). Demonstration on north side of the James River August 13-20. Strawberry Plains August 14-18. Peeble's Farm, Poplar Grove Church, September 29-October 2. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28. In front of Fort Morton November 5. Expedition to Weldon Railroad December 7-11. Watkin's House March 25, 1865. Appomattox C. H. March 28-April 9. Crow's House March 31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Sailor's Creek April 6. High Bridge and Farmville April 7. Appomattox C. H. April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. March to Burkesville April 11-13, and duty there until May 2. March to Washington, D.C., May 2-15. Grand Review May 23. Mustered out June 14, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 11 Officers and 153 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 95 Enlisted men by disease. Total 261.

12th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Fort Warren and mustered in June 26, 1861. Moved to Sandy Hook, Md., July 23-27. Attached to George H. Thomas' Brigade, Dept. of the Shenandoah, to October, 1861. Abercrombie'$ Brigade, Banks' Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Williams' 1st Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps and Dept. of the Shenandoah, to May, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to June, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Army Corps, to March, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 5th Army Corps, to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 5th Army Corps, to July, 1864.

SERVICE.--Operations on the Upper Potomac August, 1861, to February, 1862. Operations opposite Edward's Ferry October 21-24, 1861. Operations in the Shenandoah Valley March 24-April 27. Strasburg March 27. Edenburg April 1-2. Rappahannock Crossing April 18. Battle of Cedar Mountain August 9. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 16-September 2. Rappahannock Station August 20-23. Thoroughfare Gap August 28. Bull Run August 30. Chantilly September 1. Maryland Campaign September-October. Battles of South Mountain September 14, and Antietam September 16-17. Duty at Sharpsburg until October 30. Movement to Warrenton, thence to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth and Belle Plain, Va., until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Operations at Pollock's Mill Creek April 29-May 2. Fitzhugh's Crossing April 29-30. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Picket duty on the Rapidan until October. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June, 1864. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Laurel Hill May 8 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Spottsylvania Court House May 12:21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Jericho Ford May 23. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. White Oak Swamp June 13. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Ordered home for muster out June 25. Mustered out July 8, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 18 Officers and 175 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 83 Enlisted men by disease. Total 276.

13th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Fort Independence June 16, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., July 30. Attached to Stile's Brigade, Banks' Division, Army of the Potomac, to October, 1861. Abercrombie's Brigade, Banks' Division, to March, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps and Dept. of the Shenandoah, to May, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to June, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Army Corps Army of the Potomac, to May, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Army Corps, to March, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 5th Army Corps, to June, 1864. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 5th Army Corps, to July, 1864.

SERVICE.--Patrol and outpost duty on the Upper Potomac until March, 1862. Action at Beller's Mill, near Harper's Ferry, W. Va., September 2, 1861. Pritchard's Mills September 18 (2 Cos.). Bolivar Heights near Harper's Ferry, October 16. (Cos. "C," "D," "I" and "K" detached at Hancock, Md., January 5-30, 1862.) Operations in the Shenandoah Valley March and April. Occupation of Winchester, Va., March 12. Pursuit of Jackson up the Valley March 24-April 27. Guard duty on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad May 3-18. Battle of Cedar Mountain August 9. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 16-September 2. Thoroughfare Gap August 28. Battle of Bull Run August 30. Chantilly September 1. Maryland Campaign September-October. Battles of South Mountain September 14, and Antietam September 16-17. At Sharpsburg until October 30. Movement to Warrenton, thence to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth and Belle Plain until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Operations at Pollock's Mill Creek April 29-May 2. Fitzhugh's Crossing April 29-30. Battle of Chancellorsville May 2-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Picket duty along the Rapidan until October --. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to line of the Rappahanock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Duty on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad until April, 1864. Demonstrations on the Rapidan February 6-7. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Jericho Ford May 23. Line of the Pamunkey June 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. White Oak Swamp June 13. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16-July 14. Mustered out August 1, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 117 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 40 Enlisted men by disease. Total 161.

14th Regiment Infantry (Essex County Regiment)

Organized at Fort Warren and mustered in July 5, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., August 7. At Camp Kalorama until August 18. Moved to Fort Albany. Garrison duty in the Defenses of Washington until January, 1862. Designation of Regiment changed by order of the War Department to 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery January 1, 1862. (See 1st Heavy Artillery.

15th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Worcester and mustered in June 12, 1861. Moved to Washington, D.C., August 8-11. Attached to German's Brigade, Stone's (Sedgwick's) Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to July, 1864.

SERVICE.--At Camp Kalorama until August 25, 1861. March to Poolesville, Md., August 25-27. Picket and outpost duty on the Upper Potomac from Conrad's Ferry to Harrison's Island until October 20. Operations on the Potomac October 21-24. Battle of Ball's Bluff October 21. At Harper's Ferry and Bolivar Heights until March 7, 1862. At Charlestown until March 10. At Berryville until March 13. Movement toward Winchester and return to Bolivar Heights March 13-15. Moved to Fortress Monroe March 22-April 1. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Peach Orchard and Savage Station June 29. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Alexandria August 15-28, and to Centreville August 29-30. Cover Pope's retreat August 31-September 1. Battle of Antietam, Md., September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry September 22 and duty there until October 30. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 20. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, May 3. Salem Heights May 3-4. Banks' Ford May 4. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 2-4. Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Bristoe Station October 14. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Robertson's Tavern or Locust Grove November 27. Morton's Ford February 6-7, 1864. Picketing Rapidan until May, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Laurel Hill May 8 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Po River May 10 Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient at Spottsylvania Court House May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16-July 12. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23. Left the front July 12. Mustered out July 28, 1864. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 20th Massachusetts.

Regiment lost during service 14 Officers and 227 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 121 Enlisted men by disease. Total 363.

16th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Camp Cameron, Cambridge, June 29, 1861. Left State for Old Point Comfort, Va., August 17. Attached to Fortress Monroe, Dept. of Virginia, to May, 1862, 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of Virginia, to June, 1862. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 2nd Army Corps, to May, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to July, 1864.

SERVICE.--Garrison duty at Fortress Monroe, Va., September 1, 1862, to May 8, 1862. Occupation of Norfolk May 10. Moved to Suffolk May 17, and joined Army of the Potomac at Fair Oaks June 13. Nine-Mile Road, near Richmond, June 18. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove, near Fair Oaks, June 25. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1 and August 5. Duty at Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Fortress Monroe, thence to Centreville August 15-26. Bristoe Station, Kettle Run, August 27. Battles of Groveton August 29 Bull Run August 30 Chantilly September 1. Duty at Fort Lyon and at Fairfax Station, Defenses of Washington, until October 30, and at Munson's Hill until November 2. At Fairfax Station until November 25. Operations on Orange & Alexandria Railroad November 10-12. Rappahannock Campaign December, 1862, to June, 1863. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3. Wapping Heights, Va,, July 23. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to the Rappahannock November 7-8. Kelly's Ford November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Payne's Farm November 27. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Duty near Brandy Station until May, 1864. Rapidan Campaign May-June, Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient, Spottsylvania Court House, May 12. Harris' Farm, Fredericksburg Road, May 19. North Anna River May 23-26. Ox Ford May 23-24. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16-July 11. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23. Left front for muster out July 11. Veterans and Recruits transferred to the 11th Massachusetts Infantry. Mustered out July 27, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 16 Officers and 134 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 93 Enlisted men by disease. Total 245.

17th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Lynnfield July 22, 1861. Left State for Baltimore, Md., August 23. Attached to Dix's Command, Baltimore, Md., to March, 1862. Foster's 1st Brigade, Burnside's Expeditionary Corps, to April, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of North Carolina, to December, 1862. Amory's Brigade, Dept. of North Carolina, to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to July, 1863, Defenses of New Berne, N. C., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to July, 1864. Sub-District of Beaufort, N. C., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to January, 1865. Sub-District of Beaufort, N. C., Dept. of North Carolina, to March, 1865. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, District of Beaufort, N. C, Dept. of North Carolina, to March, 1865. 1st Brigade, Division District of Beaufort, to April, 1865. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 23rd Army Corps, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.--Duty at Baltimore, Md., until March, 1862. Ordered to New Berne, N. C., March 12, and duty there until December. Reconnaissance toward Trenton May 15-16. Trenton Bridge May 15. Trenton and Pollocksville Road May 22 (Co. "I"). Expedition to Trenton and Pollocksville July 24-28. Demonstration on New Berne November 11. Foster's Expedition to Goldsboro December 11-20. Kinston December 14. Whitehall December 16. Goldsboro December 17. Provost duty at and near New Berne until April, 1863. March to relief of Washington, N. C., April 7-10. Blount's Creek April 9. Expedition to Washington April 17-19. Expedition toward Kinston April 27-May 1. Wise's Cross Roads and Dover Road April 28. Expedition to Thenton July 4-8. Quaker Bridge July 6. Raid on Weldon July 25-August 1. Duty at New Berne until February, 1864. Operations about New Berne against Whiting January 18-February 10, 1864. Skirmishes at Beech Creek and Batchelor's Creek February 1-3. Expedition to Washington April 18-22. Washington April 27-28. Duty at New Berne and vicinity until July 27, and at Newport Barracks until September 23. Veterans on furlough until November 10. Duty at Newport Barracks November 20, 1864, to March 4, 1865. Moved to Core Creek. Battle of Wise's Forks March 8-10, 1865. Occupation of Kinston March 15. Occupation of Goldsboro March 21. Advance on Raleigh April 9-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Duty at Greensboro May 5-July 11. Mustered out at Greensboro, N. C., July 11, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 21 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 147 Enlisted men by disease. Total 172.

18th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Readville and Boston and mustered in August 27, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., August 28. Attached to Fort Corcoran, Defenses of Washington, to October, 1861. Martindale's Brigade, Porter's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, to October, 1864.

SERVICE.--Duty at Fort Corcoran, Defenses of Washington, D.C., until September 26, 1861, and at Hall's Hill, Va., until March 10, 1862. Advance on Manassas, Va., March 10-16, 1862. Moved to Alexandria, thence to Fortress Monroe March 16-23. Reconnaissance to Great Bethel March 27. Warwick Road April 5. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. Battle of Hanover Court House May 27. Operations about Hanover Court House May 27-29. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Operations about White House Landing June 26-July 2. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Retreat from the Peninsula and movement to Centreville August 15-28. Battle of Bull Run August 30. Battle of Antietam, Md., September 16-17. Shepherdstown Ford September 19. Shepherdstown, W. Va., September 20. At Sharpsburg until October 30. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. Expedition to Richards and Ellis Fords December 29-30. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. Duty at Falmouth until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa,) Campaign June 11-July 24. Ashby's Gap June 21. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Williamsport, Md., July 14. At Warrenton and Beverly Ford July 27 to September 17, and at Culpeper until October 11. Bristoe Campaign October 11-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Rappahannock Station November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. At and near Brandy Station and Stevensburg until May, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Laurel Hill May 8 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Jericho Ford May 23. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16 to October 21. Weldon Railroad June 21-23. Old members left front July 20 and mustered out September 2, 1864. Veterans and Recruits consolidated to a Battalion. Poplar Springs' Church, Peeble's Farm, September 30-October 2. Consolidated with 32nd Massachusetts Infantry October 21, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 9 Officers and 114 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 127 Enlisted men by disease. Total 252.

19th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Lynnfield August 28, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., August 30. Attached to Lander's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, to October, 1861. Lander's Brigade, Stone's (Sedgwick's) Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.---Camp at Meridian Hill until September 12, 1861. Moved to Poolesville, Md., September 12-15. Guard duty on the Upper Potomac until December. Operations on the Potomac October 21-24. Action at Ball's Bluff October 21. Moved to Muddy Run December 4, and duty there until March 12, 1862. Moved to Harper's Ferry, thence to Charlestown and Berryville March 12-15. Ordered to Washington, D.C., March 24, and to the Peninsula March 27. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. West Point May 7-8. Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove, near Fair Oaks, June 25. Peach Orchard and Savage Station June 29. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1. Harrison's Landing July 8. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Alexandria August 15-28, thence to Fairfax C. H. August 28-31. Cover Pope's retreat from Bull Run August 31-September 1. Maryland Campaign September-October. Battle of South Mountain September 14 (Reserve). Battle of Antietam September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry September 22, and duty there until October 30. Advance up Loudon Valley and movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 17. Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15. (Forlorn hope to cross Rappahannock at Fredericksburg December 11.) Duty at Falmouth, Va., until April, 1863. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Maryes' Heights. Fredericksburg, May 3. Salem Heights May 3-4. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 2-4, Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Bristoe Station October 14. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Robertson's Tavern, or Locust Grove, November 27. At Stevensburg until May, 1864. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Laurel Hill May 8. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Po River May 10. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864. to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23, 1864. Demonstration north of the James July 27-29. Deep Bottom July 27-28. Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14-18. Ream's Station August 25. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5-7, 1865. Watkin's House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Crow's House March 31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Sailor's Creek April 6. High Bridge and Farmville April 7. Appomattox C. H. April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. At Burkesville until May 2. March to Washington May 2-13. Grand Review May 23. Duty at Washington until June 30. Mustered out June 30 and discharged July 22, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 14 Officers and 147 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 133 Enlisted men by disease. Total 294.

20th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Readville August 29 to September 4, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., September 4. Attached to Lander's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, to October, 1861. Lander's Brigade, Stone's (Sedgwick's) Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.--Moved to Poolesville, Md., September 12-15, 1861. Guard duty along Upper Potomac until December. Operations on the Potomac October 21-24. Action at Ball's Bluff October 21. Near Edwards' Ferry October 22. Moved to Muddy Branch December 4, and duty there until March 12, 1862. Moved to Harper's Ferry, thence to Charlestown and Berryville, March 12-15. Ordered to Washington, D.C., March 24, and to the Peninsula March 27. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. West Point May 7-8. Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove, near Fair Oaks, June 25. Peach Orchard and Savage Station July 29. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1 and August 5. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Alexandria August 15-28, thence march to Fairfax C. H. August 28-31. Cover retreat of Pope's army from Bull Run August 31-September 1. Maryland Campaign September-October. South Mountain, Md., September 14 (Reserve). Battle of Antietam September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry September 22, and duty there until October 30. Reconnaissance to Charlestown October 16-17. Advance up Loudon Valley and movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 17. Battles of Fredericksburg December 11-15. (Forlorn hope to cross Rappahannock December 11.) Duty at Falmouth until April. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, May 3. Salem Heights May 3-4. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 2-4. Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Bristoe Station October 14, Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. At Stevensburg until May. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Laurel Hill May 8. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Po River May 10. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23, 1864. Demonstration north of the James July 27-29. Deep Bottom July 27-28. Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14-18. Ream's Station August 25. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5-7, 1865. Watkins' House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Crow's House March 31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Sailor's Creek April 6. High Bridge and Farmville April 7. Appomattox C. H. April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. At Burkesville until May 2. March to Washington, D.C., May 2-15. Grand Review May 23. Duty at Washington until July 15. Mustered out July 16 and discharged July 28, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 17 Officers and 243 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 148 Enlisted men by disease, Total 409.

21st Regiment Infantry

Organized at Worcester July 19 to August 19, 1861. Moved to Baltimore, Md., August 23-25 thence to Annapolis, Md., August 29 and duty there until January 6, 1862. Attached to Reno's 2nd Brigade, Burnside's Expeditionary Corps, to April, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Dept. of North Carolina, to July, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to April, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 9th Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to June, 1863. Unassigned, 1st Division, 23rd Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to October, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 9th Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to April, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, to September, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, to October, 1864.

SERVICE.--Burnside's Expedition to Hatteras Inlet January 6-February 7, 1862. Battle of Roanoke Island February 8. At Roanoke Island until March 11. Moved to New Berne March 11-13. Battle of New Berne March 14. Expedition to Elizabeth City April 17-19. Battle of Camden, South Mills, April 19. Duty at New Berne until July 6. Expedition to Pollocksville to relief of 2nd Maryland, May 17. Moved to Newport News, Va., July 6-9 thence to Fredericksburg August 2-4. March to relief of Gen. Pope August 12-15. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 16-September 2. Battles of Groveton August 29. Bull Run August 30, and Chantilly September 1. Maryland Campaign September-October. Battles of South Mountain September 14, and Antietam September 16-17. At Pleasant Valley, Md., until October 27. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 27-November 17. Warrenton, Sulphur Springs, November 15. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until February 19. Moved to Newport News, Va., and duty there until March 26. Moved to Covington, Ky., March 26-April 1. At Paris, Ky., April 1-5. At Mt. Sterling until July 6, and at Camp Nelson until September 12. March to Knoxville September 12-20. Operations in East Tennessee October 22-November 4. Knoxville Campaign November 4-December 23. Campbell's Station December 16. Siege of Knoxville November 17-December 4. Pursuit of Longstreet December 5-29. Reenlisted December 29. Veterans absent on furlough January to March, 1864. Moved to Annapolis, Md., and Join 9th Army Corps. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Ny River May 10. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Ox Ford May 24. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16-October 21. Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30. Non-Veterans left front August 18 and mustered out August 30. 1864. Weldon Railroad August 18-21. Poplar Springs Church, Peeble's Farm, September 29-October 2. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 36th Massachusetts Infantry October 21, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 11 Officers and 148 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 89 Enlisted men by disease. Total 250.

22nd Regiment Infantry

Organized at Lynnfield September 4 to October 6, 1861. Moved to Washington, D.C., October 8-11. Attached to Martindale's Brigade, Porter's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1862. 1st Brigade. 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, to March, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, to October, 1864.

SERVICE.--Duty at Hall's Hill, Va. Defenses of Washington until March, 1862. Advance on Manassas, Va., March 10-16. Moved to Alexandria, thence to Fortress Monroe, Va., March 16-23. Warwick Road April 5. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. Hanover C. H. May 27. Operations about Hanover C. H. May 27-29. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Mechanicsville June 26. Gaines' Mill June 27. White Oak Swamp and Turkey Bridge June 30. Malvern Hill July 1. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Retreat from the Peninsula and movement to Centreville August 15-28. Battle of Bull Run August 30. Battle of Antietam, Md., September 16-17. Shepherdstown September 19. At Sharpsburg until October 30. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. Expedition to Richards' and Ellis' Fords December 29-30. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 2-4. At Warrenton and Beverly Ford until September 17. At Culpeper until October 11. Bristoe Campaign October 11-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Rappahannock Station November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. At Beverly Ford until May, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Laurel Hill May 8. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16 to August 8. Relieved August 8 and guard duty at City Point until October 5. Mustered out October 17. 1864.

Regiment lost during service 9 Officers and 207 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 102 Enlisted men by disease. Total 319.

23rd Regiment Infantry

Organized September 28, 1861. Left State for Annapolis, Md., November 11, and duty there until January 6, 1862. Attached to Foster's 1st Brigade, Burnside's Expeditionary Corps, to April, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of North Carolina, to December, 1862. Heckman's Brigade, Dept. of North Carolina, to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to February, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of the South, to April, 1863. District of Beaufort, N. C., Dept. of North Carolina, to July, 1863. Defenses of New Berne, N. C., Dept, of Virginia and North Carolina, to October, 1863. Heckman's Command, Newport News, Va., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to January, 1864. 3rd Brigade, United States Forces, Portsmouth, Va., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to April, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to September, 1864. Defenses of New Berne, N. C., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to February, 1865. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, District of Beaufort, N. C., Dept. of North Carolina, to March, 1865. District of Beaufort, Dept. of North Carolina, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.--Burnside's Expedition to Hatteras Inlet and Roanoke Island, N. C., January 6-February 7, 1862. Battle of Roanoke Island February 8. On transports off Roanoke Island until March 11. Moved to New Berne, N. C., March 11-13. Battle of New Berne March 14. Duty at New Berne until April 11. and at Batchelor's Creek until May 4. Batchelor's Creek April 29. Provost duty at New Berne, N. C., until November 22. Expedition from New Berne November 2-12. Action at Rawle's Mill November 2 (Cos. "B," "C," "D," "G" and "I"). Demonstration on New Berne November 11. Picket and outpost duty in vicinity of New Berne until December 10. Foster's Expedition to Goldsboro December 11-20. Southwest Creek December 13-14. Kinston December 14. Whitehall December 16. Goldsboro December 17. Moved to Carolina City January 13, 1863 thence to Morehead City and Hilton Head, S.C., January 19-February 2. Camp at St. Helena Island, S.C., February 11-April 3, Expedition against Charleston April 3-10. Moved to New Berne April 12-16. March to relief of Little Washington April 17-19. Moved to Carolina City, N. C., April 25, and duty there until July 2. (Co. "D" detached at Fort Spinola June 26). Reconnaissance toward Swansbore June 27 (Co. "H"). Expedition to Trenton and Pollocksville July 4-8 (Cos. "C," "G," "H" and "K"). Action at Quaker Bridge July 6 (Cos. "A," "B," "E," "F" and "I"). Ordered to New Berne July 2, and duty in the Defenses of the city until October 16. Expedition from Newport Barracks to Cedar Point July 13-16. Moved to Newport News, Va., October 16-18, and duty there until January 22, 1864. Moved to Portsmouth, Va., January 22. Duty there and at Getty's Station, on Norfolk & Suffolk Railroad, until April 26. Demonstration on Portsmouth March 1-5. Expedition to Isle of Wight County April 13-15. Action at Smithfield, Cherry Grove, April 14. Moved to Yorktown April 26. Butler's operations on south side of James River and against Petersburg and Richmond May 4-28. Port Walthal Junction, Chester Station, May 6-7. Swift's Creek, Arrowfield Church, May 9-10. Operations against Fort Darling May 12-16. Drury's Bluff May 14-16. Bermuda Hundred May 16-28. Moved to White House, thence to Cold Harbor, May 28-June 1. Battles about Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 15-18. Siege of Petersburg June 15-September 4. Mine Explosion July 30 (Reserve). Duty in the trenches at Bermuda Hundred, Va., August 25-September 4. Moved to New Berne, N. C., September 4-10. Picket, guard and patrol duty there until March 3, 1865. Affair at Currituck Bridge September 9 (Detachment). Non-Veterans mustered out September 28, 1864. Movements on Goldsboro March 3-14. Southwest Creek March 7. Battle of Wise's Forks March 8-10. Occupation of Kinston March 14, and duty there until May 2. Moved to New Berne May 2, and duty there until June 25. Mustered out June 25, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 80 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 132 Enlisted men by disease. Total 218.

Source - "A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion" by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)


World History Events in the Decade 1910-1919

The second decade of the 19th century is dominated by events of World War I, a four-year battle which involved Britain, France, and Russia, and Germany, the Austro-Hungarian empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and eventually the United States.

Getty Images / Topical Press Agency

In February of 1910, the Boy Scout Association was founded by W.S. Boyce, Edward S. Stewart, and Stanley D. Willis. One of several youth organizations at the time, the BSA grew to become the largest and most successful of all. Halley's Comet arrived in the inner Solar System and came into ​naked-eye view on April 10. The tango, a dance and its music derived from a cultural blend of Cuban, Argentinian, and African rhythms, began to catch fire around the world.

On March 25, 1911, New York City's Triangle Shirtwaist factory caught fire and killed 500 workers, leading to the establishment of building, fire, and safety codes. The Chinese or Xinghai Revolution began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10. On May 15, and after John D. Rockefeller lost an anti-trust battle in the Supreme Court, Standard Oil was broken into 34 separate companies.

In science, British physicist Ernest Rutherford published a paper in the Philosophical Magazine describing what would become known as the Rutherford model of the atom. American archaeologist Hiram Bingham first saw the Incan city of Machu Picchu on July 24, and Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen reached the geographic South Pole on Dec. 14.

Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa was stolen off the wall of the Louvre Museum on Aug. 21, and not returned to France until 1913. Although the modern parachute was invented in the 18th century, a successful test of inventor Charles Broadwick's version was held in Paris, when a dummy wearing one was chucked off the Eiffel tower in Paris.

In 1912, Nabisco made its first Oreo cookie, two chocolate disks with creme filling and not very different from those we get today. Charles Dawson claimed to have discovered the "Piltdown Man," a blend of stained animal bones not revealed as a fraud until 1949. On April 14, the steamship RMS Titanic struck an iceberg and sank the next day, killing over 1,500 passengers and crew.​

Puyi, the last Emperor of China and aged 6 at the time, was forced to abdicate his throne as emperor, after the conclusion of the Xinhai Revolution.

The first crossword puzzle was published in the New York World on Dec. 21, 1913, constructed by Liverpool journalist Arthur Wynne. The Grand Central Terminal was completed and opened to New Yorkers on Feb. 2. Henry Ford opened his first automobile assembly line to produce the Model T in Highland Park, Michigan on Dec. 1. The Los Angeles Aqueduct system, a.k.a. Owens Valley aqueduct was completed this year, flooding the town of Owens Valley. And also in 1913, the 16th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, allowing the government to collect ​personal income tax. The first Form 1040 was created in October.

World War I started in August of 2014, initiated by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo on June 28. The first major battle was the Battle of Tannenberg between Russia and Germany, Aug. 26–30 and trench warfare was begun in the First Battle of the Marne, Sept. 6–12.

The 24-year-old Charlie Chaplin first appeared in movie theaters as the Little Tramp in Henry Lehman's "Kid Auto Races at Venice." Ernest Shackleton set sail in the Endurance on his four-year-long Trans-Antarctic Expedition on Aug. 6. The first modern red-green traffic lights were installed on city streets of Cleveland, Ohio and Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica. The Panama Canal was completed in 1914 and in the most powerful eruption in 20th century Japan, the Sakurajima (Cherry Blossom Island) volcano generated lava flows that continued for months.

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Most of 1915 was focused on the expanding World War I. The bloody Gallipoli Campaign took place in Turkey on Feb. 17, the only major Ottoman victory of the war. On April 22, German forces used 150 tons of chlorine gas against French forces at the Second Battle of Ypres, the first use of modern chemical warfare. The Armenian Genocide, during which the Ottoman Empire systematically exterminated 1.5 million Armenians, began on April 24, with the deportation of about 250 intellectuals and community leaders from Constantinople. On May 7, the British ocean liner RMS Lusitania was torpedoed by a German U-boat and sunk.

On Sept. 4, the last of the Romanovs Tsar Nicholas II formally took command of the Russia Army, despite nearly unanimous opposition from his cabinet. On Oct. 12, British nurse Edith Cavell was executed for treason in German-occupied Belgium. On Dec. 18, Woodrow Wilson became the first sitting president to marry during his term of office, when he wed Edith Bolling Galt.

D.W. Griffith's controversial film "The Birth of a Nation" which portrays African Americans in a negative light and glorifies the Ku Klux Klan, was released on Feb. 5 national interest in the Ku Klux Klan was revived by this event.

In inventions, on Dec. 10, Henry Ford's one-millionth Model T rolled off the assembly line at the River Rouge plant in Detroit. In New York, Alexander Graham Bell made his first transcontinental telephone call to his assistant Thomas Watson in San Francisco on Jan. 25. Of course, Bell repeated his famous phrase "Mr. Watson come here, I want you," to which Watson replied, "It will take me five days to get there now!"

World War I worsened in 1916, with two of the largest, longest and most blood-soaked battles. At the Battle of the Somme, 1.5 million people were killed between July 1 and Nov. 18, counting French, British, and Germans. The British used the first tanks there, the British Mark I on Sept. 15. The Battle of Verdun lasted between Feb. 21 and Dec. 18, killing an estimated 1.25 million. A battle held in December in the South Tyrol region of northern Italy caused an avalanche, killing 10,000 Austro-Hungarian and Italian soldiers. WWI flying ace Manfred von Richthofen (a.k.a. the Red Baron) shot down his first enemy aircraft on Sept. 1.

Between July 1 and 12, a series of Great White shark attacks off the Jersey shore killed four people, injured another, and terrified thousands. On Nov. 17, Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, became the first American woman ever elected to Congress. John D. Rockefeller became the first American billionaire.

On October 6, a group of artists met and put on performances at the Cabaret Voltaire to express their disgust with World War I and found the anti-art movement known as Dada. On Easter morning, April 24, a group of Irish nationalists proclaimed the establishment of the Irish Republic and seized prominent buildings in Dublin.

The first self-help grocery, a Piggly-Wiggly, was opened in Memphis Tennessee by Clarence Saunders. Grigori Rasputin, the Mad Monk and favorite of the Russian heads of state, was murdered in the early morning of December 30. Margaret Sanger set up the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn on October 16, after which she was promptly arrested.

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The first Pulitzer Prize was awarded in Journalism to French Ambassador Jean Jules Jusserand, for his book on American history he won $2000. The exotic dancer and spy Mata Hari was arrested by the French and executed on Oct. 15, 1917. The Russian Revolution began in February with the toppling of the Russian monarchy.

On April 16, the Congress declared war on Germany and the United States officially joined its allies Britain, France, and Russia, fighting in World War I.

Russian Czar Nicholas II and his family were all killed on the night of July 16-17. The Spanish flu pandemic likely began in Fort Riley, Kansas in March of 1918, and spread along with its infected soldiers into France by mid-May.

On April 20, 1916, Germany and Austria began saving daylight to conserve fuel needed to produce electric power the U.S. formally adopted this standard on March 31, 1918. During the October 7, 1918 Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Sergeant York became a war hero and future movie subject.

The right-wing anti-Semitic and nationalistic German Workers' Party was founded on Jan. 5, 1919, and on Sept. 12, Adolf Hitler attended his first meeting. The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28 and registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on Oct. 21.


Document: Diary of Lewis Timothy Litchfield

This diary, housed at the Kenneth Spencer Research Library at the University of Kansas, takes modern readers several steps back to the first few months of Lawrence’s settlement. The first-hand account offers up detailed descriptions of the settlers’ religious motivations, their long journey to Kansas which included stops in Kansas City and Westport, the author’s first view of the future town site on the Kansas or “Kaw” River, disputes with Missouri “border ruffians,” the materials and methods the settlers used to construct buildings, and a few surprises along the way.

From sources besides this diary, we know that the first party of representatives from the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society surveyed the area in July 1854. They were led by Dr. Charles Robinson and Charles H. Branscomb, who selected a site west of the confluence of the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers on August 1, 1854, which they believed to be the best in Kansas Territory for a new settlement.

Lewis Timothy Litchfield’s diary begins by describing the second party, which according to the diary was led by Charles Robinson and Samuel C. Pomeroy and left Boston on August 29, 1854, arrived at the future site of Lawrence on September 9, and immediately began to establish the as-yet-unnamed town. Most of the diary appears to have been written retrospectively some months or years after the events described, which means that it is well-organized (even labeled with six “chapters”), but it is sometimes difficult to know the exact dates of the events described.

The party rode a train through Syracuse, Buffalo, and Detroit, and Litchfield likened “this scene to the one of our forefathers crossing the Broad Atlantic to make their home in the new world.” The party continued by rail through Chicago to St. Louis and then traveled on the Missouri River to Kansas City, where they disembarked at the city’s well-known landing, purchased supplies, and rested for three days. Their last stop prior to entering Kansas was at Westport, Missouri, which Litchfield described as “a flourishing town composed mostly of men of little or no principle who boast on their staunch proslavery principles.”

Upon receiving a rifle from the citizens of Leominster, Massachusetts, Litchfield wrote, “Of this I shall say nothing, as I intend that the rifle is to become a part of my person as much as an arm or hand, and so long as the warm blood runs through my veins, it shall never be . by the touch of a slaveholder.” No summary of the rest of the document would do it justice, as the linked transcription is quite readable, but among other events, Litchfield describes the naming of the town and the construction of the first makeshift building in Lawrence, which ultimately served as a sort of boarding house and hotel, operated by Litchfield and his wife, for new migrants to Kansas. Litchfield recounted armed standoffs with Missouri border ruffians who challenged the Kansas settler’s claims to the site and backed down only when the settlers “cool[ed] their ardor a little . with shotguns, rifles[,] pistols, and every kind of firearms.”

No blood is shed in this diary, but a small amount of background research unveils a gloomier story. In the document, Litchfield made it clear that he believed it was his God-given duty to be willing to use force, if necessary, to fight against slavery. At the beginning of the Civil War, Litchfield was a member of the Kansas Rifles militia, which had become known as “the Stubbs” for its men’s short stature and history of fighting Missouri border ruffians.

“The Stubbs” were mustered into the First Regiment of the Kansas Volunteer Infantry as Company D and soon fought at the pivotal Battle of Wilson’s Creek outside Springfield, Missouri, on August 10, 1861. In that battle, Nathaniel Lyon became the first Union general to die in the Civil War, and the early tide of the war in Missouri temporarily shifted in the favor of the South. For his part, it is documented in the resources listed below that Lewis Timothy Litchfield suffered the same fate as General Lyon at Wilson’s Creek.


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