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The legacy of Dujiangyan: China’s ancient irrigation system

The legacy of Dujiangyan: China’s ancient irrigation system


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Dujiangyan is the oldest and only surviving non-dam irrigation system in the world, and a wonder in the development of Chinese science. Built over 2,200 years ago in what is now Sichuan province in Southwest China, this incredible feat of engineering is still in use today to irrigate over 668,700 hectares of farmland, drain floodwater, and provide water resources for more than 50 cities in the province. Dujiangyan is now undergoing its largest renovation in over a decade.

More than two millennia ago, the region in which Dujiangyan now stands was threatened by the frequent floods caused by flooding of the Minjiang River (a tributary of the Yangtze River ). Li Bing, a local official of Sichuan Province at that time, together with his son, discovered that the river was swelled by fast flowing spring melt-water from the local mountains that burst the banks when it reached the slow moving and heavily silted stretch below. One solution would have been to build a dam but Li Bing had also been charged with keeping the waterway open for military vessels to supply troops on the frontier, so instead he proposed to construct an artificial levee to redirect a portion of the river's flow and then to cut a channel through Mount Yulei to discharge the excess water upon the dry Chengdu Plain beyond.

Li Bing received funding for the project from King Zhao of Qin and set to work with a team said to number tens of thousands. The levee was constructed from long sausage-shaped baskets of woven bamboo filled with stones known as Zhulong and held in place by wooden tripods known as Macha. The system uses natural topographic and hydrological features to solve problems of diverting water for irrigation, draining sediment, flood control, and flow control without the use of dams.

Cutting the channel through Mount Yulei was a remarkable accomplishment considering that this project was undertaken long before the invention of gunpowder and explosives, which would have enabled the builders to penetrate the hard rock of the mountain. But Li Bing found another solution. He used a combination of fire and water to heat and cool the rocks until they cracked and could be removed. After eight years of work a 20 metre wide channel had been gouged through the mountain.

After the system was finished, no more floods occurred. The irrigation made Sichuan the most productive agricultural place in China and the people have been living peacefully and affluently ever since. Now, the project is honoured as the 'Treasure of Sichuan'.

Dujiangyan, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is admired by scientists from around the world, because of one feature. Unlike contemporary dams where the water is blocked with a huge wall, Dujiangyan still lets water go through naturally, enabling ecosystems and fish populations to exist in harmony.


    Dujiangyan Irrigation System

    This ancient waterworks about 60 km northwest of Chengdu transformed the region. It is an amazing feat of engineering and construction and is a wonder of the world, and is a UNESCO world heritage site. This waterworks is still used to irrigate 5,300 square kilometers of land in the region. For thousands of years, it has helped to make Sichuan a prosperous agricultural province in China. It was used to not only control flooding on the Min River, but also to irrigate an arid region on the other side of a mountain around Chengdu. Visitors to the site will gain an appreciation of the ingenuity and history of people of the Qin Dynasty over 2000 years ago.


    The legacy of Dujiangyan: China’s ancient irrigation system - History

    A heavy rainstorm hits Leshan, Sichuan Province and the Minjiang River's water level at the Leshan section is now above the warning line.

    It isn't just Leshan City many parts of Sichuan Province are suffering from floods, but Dujiangyan, also located along the Minjiang River, survived unscathed. The ancient irrigation system constructed about 2,000 years ago still works today.

    The Dujiangyan Irrigation System is located on the Chengdu Plain of the Minjiang River and it is one of the oldest irrigation systems in the world. With a history of over 2,000 years, its continuous function has turned it into a living relic, benefitting people living on the Chengdu Plain and making many believe that it is actually a greater architectural miracle than the Great Wall.

    Dujiangyan Irrigation System. /Doujiangyan offcial Weibo

    Why was this huge project built? In the "Record of the Grand Historian" (Shiji) by Sima Qian, we find the answer.

    There are three main reasons for Dujiangyan. First of all is flood control, second is to provide a stable strategic rear base for the national reunification, and also for the development of water transport routes.

    Li Bing, governor of Shu for the state of Qin, and his son lead the construction. Instead of building a dam, they harnessed the river using a new method at that time: dividing the water.

    There are three main parts of the construction: The Yuzui (Fish Mouth Levee), the Feishayan (Flying Sand Weir) and the Baopingkou (Bottle-Neck Channel). Each has a different, indispensable function.

    The first Minjiang River barrier is Yuzui. It was built at the bend of the river, where the surging water is divided into the inner and outer rivers by the "dikes". The lateral canal drains the flood and the inner canal flows into the Chengdu Plain through Baopingkou.

    Dujiangyan Irrigation System. /Doujiangyan offcial Weibo

    The water that runs through Yuzui is less turbulent, but it still carries a lot of sand, and that's when Feishayan works. The weir has a opening that connects the inner and outer streams which allows the swirling flow to drain out excess water. Every year, the river workers clean the sand up, which effectively prevents the silting of the river from breaking its banks.

    The place where Baopingkou locates was Yulei Mountain. It took Li Bing and his team eight years to chisel the stone wall open to form the constant width for a thousand years. It was named Baopingkou (Bottle-Neck Channel) because of its shape.

    Dujiangyan Irrigation System. /CFP

    The purpose of Baopingkou was to divert and irrigate the water entering the Chengdu plain. If a large amount of water was blocked by the Baopingkou during the flood period, the water level would rise. When the water level exceeded a certain level, the drainage channel behind the Feishayan weir would be discharged to the outer river to achieve the secondary flood discharge.

    Every design in the Dujiangyan irrigation system takes full advantage of the local environmental characteristics. It takes advantages of nature instead of conquering it by means of human intervention with minimal impact.


    The legacy of Dujiangyan: China’s ancient irrigation system - History

    Category of site: Cultural Site

    Brief introduction

    Located on the northwest edge of Chengdu Plain, Dujiangyan was built in the 3rd century BC and is a world famous irrigation system, controlling the waters of the Minjiang River and distributing it to the fertile farmland of the Chengdu Plain. Qingcheng Mountain, famous for many ancient temples, can claim to have some strong roots for China's Taoism.

    The Dujiangyan Irrigation System, a major landmark in the development of water management and technology that is still discharging its functions perfectly, was first built in 256 BC (during the Warring States Period) by magistrate Li Bing and modified and enlarged during the Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties. It is an ecological engineering feat, located in the western portion of the Chengdu flatlands at the junction between the Sichuan basin and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Comprising two parts today - the Weir Works, located at an altitude of 726 meters, the highest point of the Chengdu plain 1 km from Dujiangyan city, and the irrigated area, it uses natural topographic and hydrological features to solve problems of diverting water for irrigation, draining sediment, flood control, and flow control without the use of dams. The water from the upper valley of the Minjiang River is controlled by three key components of the Weir Works: the Yuzui Bypass Dike, the Feishayan Floodgate, and the Baopingkou Diversion Passage. These structures, with ancillary embankments and watercourses including the Baizhang Dike, the Erwang Temple Watercourse and the V-Shaped Dike, ensure a regular supply of water to the Chengdu Plain. The system has played vital role in flood control, irrigation, water transport and general water consumption. One of the earliest irrigation systems of China and still in use today, it serves to divert waters from the Minjiang River to the West Sichuan Plain. There are many cultural relics in the neighborhood, including the Temple of the Two Kings, the Temple of the Hidden Dragon, the Bridge of Peaceful Waves and the Li Mounds.

    Qingcheng Mountain, dominating the Chengdu Plain to the south of the Dujiangyan Irrigation System, was the birthplace of Taoism in China. With over 20 temples and religious sites for Taoism, it exudes a strong flavor of Taoist culture and the buildings demonstrate the Sichuan style of architecture. It is famous as the place where in 142 the philosopher Zhang Ling founded the doctrine of Chinese Taoism. Built on the mountain during the Jin and Tang dynasties are many temples expressing Taoism culture. The mountain was regarded again as intellectual and spiritual centre of Taoism in the 17th century. The 11 important Taoist temples like Two Kings and the Temple of the Hidden Dragon, where Zhang Ling preached his doctrines, display the traditional architecture of western Sichuan.

    It was added to the list in November 2000.

    Cultural heritage

    Large stone inscriptions by Huang Yunhu of the Qing Dynasty are prominent on the mountain, reading the fifth most famous mountain under Heaven and Top of Qingcheng Mountain. A 2.9 meters high and 4.5 ton statue of Li Bing, made 1,800 years ago, the first altorilievo stone sculpture in Chinese history, is now on display in a hall on the mountain after its excavation from a riverbed in 1974. Inscriptions recording water management methods, maps of Dujiangyan made in the Qing Dynasty and testimonials to Li Bing and his son are also on display, side by side with precious art works by several famous modern painters such as Xu Beihong, Zhang Daqian and Guan Shanyue.

    Taoist culture

    Qingcheng Mountain is one of the birthplaces of Taoism. In the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 AD), the founder of Taoism, Celestial Master Zhang Daoling once set up his pulpit there to deliver lectures. During the Tang Dynasty, advocates of the newly introduced Buddhism vied with the Taoists for this base, until Emperor Xuanzong allocated the mountain to the latter.

    As an indigenous religion of China, the Taoist religion was initiated in the Eastern Han Dynasty by Zhang Daoling and developed ever since. It is part of Taoism in the larger sense, which is deeply inspired by the theory of Laozi in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) and features the harmony of human and nature, the virtue of leisure and tranquility, and a positive attitude toward the occult and the metaphysical. The Taoist religion, which is concerned with the ritual worship of the Tao, has a profound influence upon Chinese life.

    Qingcheng Mountain is a representative site of Taoist culture. Major religious sites here include the Natural Picture (a building complex immersed in nature), the Celestial Master's Cave, the Hall of the Ancestral Masters, Cave Facing the Sun and the Palace of Celestial Freshness.

    All structures are shaded by dense woods and embraced by nature. The Celestial Master's Cave, perched on a cliff with only a small path leading to its entrance, houses statues of Fuxi, Shennong and Xuanyuan (three legendary primeval kings of the Han people) on its main altar.

    The Natural Picture is a building complex made of wood. Lying in the arms of high mountains and steep cliffs, it presents a lush and primitive view of forests and pure sky. The neighboring Crane-dwelling Village adds even more colors to the picture when the white cranes cruise gracefully among the mountain peaks.

    During the Warring States period, people living along the banks of the Minjiang River were plagued by annual flooding. Qin governor Li Bing investigated the problem and found that the river was swelled by fast flowing spring melt-water from the local mountains that burst the banks when it reached the slow moving and heavily silted stretch below. One solution was to build a dam but Li Bing had also been charged with keeping the waterway open for military vessels to supply troops on the frontier, so he proposed to build an artificial levee to redirect a portion of the river's flow and then to cut a channel through Yulei Mountain to discharge the excess water upon the dry Chengdu Plain beyond.

    Receiving 100,000 taels of silver for the project from King Zhao of Qin, Li Bing set to work with a team said to number tens of thousands. The levee was built from long sausage-shaped baskets of woven bamboo filled with stones held in place by wooden tripods. The construction of a water-diversion levee looking like a fish's mouth took four years to finish.

    Cutting the channel proved to be a much more difficult problem, as the tools available to Li Bing at the time could not penetrate the hard rock of the mountain. Therefore, he used a combination of fire and water to heat and cool the rocks until they cracked and could be removed. Having worked for 8 years, a 20-metre-wide (66 ft) channel had been gouged through the mountain.

    After the system was completed, no more floods occurred. The irrigation turned Sichuan into the most productive agricultural place in China. On the east side of Dujiangyan, people built a shrine in memory of Li Bing.


    Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System

    Construction of the Dujiangyan irrigation system began in the 3rd century B.C. This system still controls the waters of the Minjiang River and distributes it to the fertile farmland of the Chengdu plains. Mount Qingcheng was the birthplace of Taoism, which is celebrated in a series of ancient temples.

    Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

    Mont Qingcheng et système d’irrigation de Dujiangyan

    La construction du système d'irrigation de Dujiangyan a commencé au III e siècle av. J.-C. Le système continue de réguler les eaux de la rivière Minjiang et de les distribuer sur les terres fertiles des plaines de Chengdu. Le Mont Qingcheng est le berceau du taoïsme qui est célébré par une série de temples anciens.

    Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

    جبل كينشينغ ونظام دوجيانغان للريّ

    بدأ بناء نظام دوجيانغان للري في القرن الثالث ق.م. وهو لا زال ينظم دفق مياه نهر مينجيانغ ويوزّعها على أراضي سهول شينغدو الخصبة. وجبل كينشينغ هو مهد الطاويّة التي يُحتفى بها بوجود سلسلة من المعابد القديمة.

    source: UNESCO/ERI
    Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

    青城山—都江堰

    source: UNESCO/ERI
    Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

    Гора Цинчэншань и древняя оросительная система Дуцзянъянь

    Строительство оросительной системы Дуцзянъянь началось в III в. до н.э. Она до сих пор регулирует воды реки Миньцзян и распределяет ее по плодородным угодьям равнины Чэнду. Гора Цинчэншань была местом зарождения даосизма, что отмечено несколькими старинными храмами.

    source: UNESCO/ERI
    Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

    Monte Qingcheng y sistema de irrigación de Dujiangyan

    La construcción del sistema de regadío de Dujiangyan comenzó en el siglo III a.C., pero todavía sigue regulando las aguas del río Minjiang y distribuyéndolas por las fértiles llanuras de Chengdu. El Monte Qingcheng es la cuna del taoísmo y posee toda una serie de templos antiguos que conmemoran el nacimiento de esta doctrina.

    source: UNESCO/ERI
    Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

    青城山と都江堰水利(灌漑)施設
    Berg Qingcheng en het Dujiangyan irrigatiesysteem

    De aanleg van het irrigatiesysteem van Dujiangyan begon in de 3e eeuw voor Christus onder leiding van Li Bing, magistraat van de Qin dynastie. Het Lidui gebied werd bewerkt, kanalen werden gegraven om overstroming tegen te gaan en om een weg voor het water te creëren zodat aangrenzende akkers geïrrigeerd zouden kunnen worden. Daarmee werd een 'land van overvloed' geschapen. Het water van de Minjiang rivier wordt tegenwoordig nog steeds door dit systeem gereguleerd. De berg Qingcheng was de geboorteplaats van het taoïsme – een van de meest invloedrijke religies van Oost-Azië in de geschiedenis – wat zich uit in talrijke oude tempels in het gebied.

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    Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System © OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection

    Outstanding Universal Value

    Brief synthesis

    The Dujiangyan irrigation system, located in the western portion of the Chengdu flatlands at the junction between the Sichuan basin and the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, is an ecological engineering feat originally constructed around 256 BC. Modified and enlarged during the Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties, it uses natural topographic and hydrological features to solve problems of diverting water for irrigation, draining sediment, flood control, and flow control without the use of dams. Today the system comprises two parts: the Weir Works, located at an altitude of 726m, the highest point of the Chengdu plain 1km from Dujiangyan City, and the irrigated area. Three key components of the Weir Works control the water from the upper valley of the Minjiang River: the Yuzui Bypass Dike, the Feishayan Floodgate, and the Baopingkou Diversion Passage. Together with ancillary embankments and watercourses including the Baizhang Dike, the Erwang Temple Watercourse and the V-Shaped Dike, these structures ensure a regular supply of water to the Chengdu plains. The system has produced comprehensive benefits in flood control, irrigation, water transport and general water consumption. Begun over 2,250 years ago, it now irrigates 668,700 hectares of farmland.

    Mount Qingcheng, dominating the Chengdu plains to the south of the Dujiangyan Irrigation System, is a mountain famous in Chinese history as the place where in 142 CE the philosopher Zhang Ling founded the doctrine of Chinese Taoism. Most of the essential elements of Taoism culture are embodied in the teachings of Taoism that emanated from the temples that were subsequently built on the mountain during the Jin and Tang dynasties. The mountain resumed its role as the intellectual and spiritual centre of Taoism in the 17th century. The eleven important Taoist temples on the mountain reflect the traditional architecture of western Sichuan and include the Erwang Temple, the Fulong Temple, the Changdao Temple built over the place where Zhang Ling preached his doctrines, and the Jianfu Palace (formerly the Zhangren Temple).

    Criterion (ii): The Dujiangyan Irrigation System, begun in the 2nd century BCE, is a major landmark in the development of water management and technology, and is still discharging its functions perfectly.

    Criterion (iv): The immense advances in science and technology achieved in ancient China are graphically illustrated by the Dujiangyan Irrigation System.

    Criterion (vi): The temples of Mount Qingcheng are closely associated with the foundation of Taoism, one of the most influential religions of East Asia over a long period of history.

    Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System have been completely preserved, with all necessary attributes demonstrating the outstanding universal value of the property included inside the property area and buffer zone. They express the importance of utilizing natural features to their fullest in constructing an irrigation system as well as Qingcheng Mountain's importance as one of the birth places of Tao ideology.

    Authenticity

    Dujiangyan Irrigation System is not only a living heritage of 2,000 year-old design and engineering ideas it is also still in use today. The functions, religious traditions and the special religious status of the Taoist temple cluster of Mount Qingcheng are fully preserved while still maintaining traditional building styles. Furthermore, internationally accepted protection guidelines and rules have been adhered in conservation and repair projects in terms of location, design, materials, and techniques.

    Protection and management requirements

    Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000. It has also been declared a State Priority Protected Site, among the first batch of National Scenic Areas and Historical Sites, and a National ISO14000 Demonstration Area. Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System are protected by several national laws including the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, and Scenic Spots and Historical Sites Regulations. In addition to national laws, Sichuan Province has also enacted its own laws, including the Regulations on Conservation of Heritage of Sichuan Province and Regulations on Management of Scenic Spots and Historical Sites of Sichuan Province. The buffer zone of the property has been designated.

    Currently, the conservation condition of both properties is excellent. During the Sichuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008, Dujiangyan Irrigation System was basically undamaged, but some Taoist shrines were damaged to varying degrees. Subsequently, these ancient structures were successfully repaired with the help of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, Shanghai Municipal Government and the Macao Foundation. The Outstanding Universal Value of Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System is kept through regular and rigorous maintenance and protection of the properties.


    Dujiangyan Irrigation System Tour,Travel Guide

    before your tour, you’d better understand the system’s theory,history background, then you will understand more.
    There is video explaining why separate into 2 channel and how to infiltrate the sand to let clean flow into target.

    Nearby 1: from dujiangyan irrigation to qingchengshan about 30-45 mins.
    Nearby 2: from dujiangyan irrigation to DJY panda base about 30-45 mins.
    Tips: visiting from top mount(秦宴楼) to the foot will be quite easy and not tired

    Two Kings Temple—The Erwang Temple at Dujiangyan,Erwang or Two Kings Temple is located on the bank of the river at the foot of Mount Yulei.The original Wangdi Temple built in memory of an ancient Shu king was relocated and so locals renamed the temple here,in honour of Li Bing and his legendary son whom they had posthumously promoted to kings.

    The 10,072m2 Qing Dynasty wooden complex conforms to the traditional standard of temple design except that it does not follow a north-south axis.The main hall, which contains a modern statue of Li Bing,opens up onto a courtyard facing an opera stage.On Li Bing’s traditional birthday, 24th day of the 7th month of the lunar calendar,local operas were performed for the public,
    and on Tomb Sweeping Day a Water Throwing Festival is held.

    The rear hall contains a modern statue of the god Erlang Shen who was allegedly Li Bings son,but historic records fail to confirm this and it is possible that he was invented by locals to give their hero a descendent to maintain his family heritage.
    Guanlantin Pavilion stands above the complex and is inscribed with wise words from Li Bing such as,
    When the river flows in zigzags, cut a straight channel when the riverbed is wide and shallow, dig it deeper.


    Dujiangyan Irrigation System

    Dujiangyan Irrigation System is honored as the 'Treasure of Sichuan', which still plays a crucial role in draining off floodwater, irrigating farms and providing water resources for more than 50 cities in the province.

    In China, Chengdu is always praised as the Tian Fu Zhi Guo, which means 'Nature's Storehouse'. Over 2,200 years ago, the city was threatened by the frequent floods caused by flooding of the Minjiang River (a tributary of the Yangtze River). Li Bing, a local official of Sichuan Province at that time, together with his son, decided to construct an irrigation system on the Minjiang River to prevent flooding. After a lengthy study and a lot of hard work by the local people, the great Dujiangyan Irrigation System was completed. Since then, the Chengdu Plain has been free of flooding and the people have been living peacefully and affluently.

    Dujiangyan is the oldest and only surviving no-dam irrigation system in the world and a wonder in the development of Chinese science. The project consists of three important parts, namely Yuzui, Feishayan and Baopingkou scientifically designed to automatically control the water flow of the rivers from the mountains to the plains throughout the year.

    Yuzui, like a big fish lying in the Minjiang River, is a watershed dividing the river into two parts: inner river and outside river. Feisha Yan is a spillway that diverts the sand and stones of the inner river into the outer river. Baoping Kou, like a neck of a bottle, is used to bring water into the inner river from Minjiang. At the same time, Baoping Kou controls the amount of the intake water due to its reasonable location. These three parts interact with each other perfectly to form an effective water conservancy project. During the low-water season, 60% of the Minjiang water is brought into the inner river for irrigation while 40% of the water is drawn into the outside river. The situation is reversed in the flood season ensuring the water supply for irrigation and protection from flooding on the Chengdu Plain.

    There is a magnificent bridge called the Anlan Cable Bridge crossing the Minjiang River above Yuzui, which is the most scenic place of the whole project. The construction of the bridge originally commenced before the Song Dynasty (960-1279). At that time, the body of the bridge was constructed with wooden blocks and the handrails were made of bamboo. Recently the wood and bamboo were replaced with steel and reinforced concrete to ensure the security of the visitors. Seen from afar, the bridge looks like a rainbow hanging over the river. From the bridge, you can clearly see the entire layout of the Dujiangyan Irrigation System.

    Erwang Temple is located on the mountain by the right side bank of the Minjiang River. It was built to commemorate Li Bing and his son by the ancient people. The temple retains the architectural style of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and the whole environment here is quite serene and beautiful. Many Chinese characters depicting experiences of water control are engraved on the stone walls of the temple. In the Grand Hall, you can see the vivid statues of Li and his son, who are worshiped by the local people every day. Incense has never ceased to burn in the temple. For over twenty two hundred years, the people have held memorial ceremonies for Li and his son. Today the main activities are the Temple Fair held from June 24th to June 26th in Chinese lunar calendar and the Releasing Water Festival on Tomb Sweeping Day.


    What to See in Dujiangyan City

    【Dujiangyan Irrigation System】
    Dujiangyan water conservancy project makes full use of local geographical conditions of high northwest and low southeast, according to the special terrain of mountain and rivers and according to water vein and water potential to draw water without dam, to irrigate by gravity. The embankment, water diversion, flood discharge, desilting, current control is mutual independent and became a system to ensure the social comprehensive benefits of water flood control, irrigation, water transportation bring into full play. What is great is that it is enduring for more than 2250 years, and it produces more and more benefits. After the completion of Dujiangyan Irrigation System, the Chengdu plain became a vast expanse of fertile land.

    The irrigation system consists of three sections: the Fish Mouth, which splits the Min River into the inner and outer rivers, the Feisha Dike, which helps reduce the amount of silt carried by the inner Min River before it flows into the Baopingkou ("mouth of the treasure bottle") Aqueduct, the third section which leads the waters into the Chengdu Plain. The bed of the outer river is convex while that of the inner river is concave. This fact, an integral part of Li Bing's original design, results in less slit going into the inner river which is primarily used for irrigation.

    【Two Kings Temple】
    Two Kings Temple is located in the M injiang River right bank slope it closes to D ujiangyan in the front. It was E mperor Temple originally for memory of the king of Shu, and in Qi dynasty Jianwu period (A.D. 494-498) it was offered sacrifices to Libing and his son, renamed the "Chongde T emple ". After the Song dynasty (960-1279), Liing and his son have been knighted as king successively, so the temple was called "Two Kings Temple". In the main hall, there is the statue of Libing and his son, and there was water conservancy quotes, poet inscriptions and so on. The building group distributes in eastern Dujiangyan Irrigation System with large-scale, rigorous layout. It covers an area of about 50000 square meters, the main building about 10000 square meters. Two Kings Temple divided into east and west garden, east garden is landscape garden, west garden is for temple area.

    【Fulong Temple】
    Fulong Temple is located in the Lidui Park. Below is the Linshen Pool, it is said that when Libing and his son were here to prevent floods by water control, they subdued evil dragon under the Lidui, so in the early years of the northern Song dynasty in order to memory Libing, named "Fulong Temple" (means subdued dragon in Chinese). In the middle of front hall there is Libing stone figure carved in the eastern Han dynasty (25-220 AD). Inside the hall, there are also weir workers statues of the eastern Han dynasty, Tang dynasty relic that Jinxian and Princess Yuzhen cultivated themselves according to a religious doctrine in Mount Qingcheng &ndash Flying Dragon Ding (an ancient cooking vessel with two loop handles and three or four legs). Fulong Temple is also named Laowang Temple, Li Ancestral Temple, Li Temple, etc.

    【Anlan Rope Bridge】
    Anlan Rope Bridge also known as "Anlan Bridge", "Couple B ridge ". It is located in Dujiangyan Fish Mouth, across both inside and outside two rivers, known as the one of the "five bridges of ancient China", is the most typical landscape of Dujiangyan. It was built in the Song dynasty, and in the late Ming dynasty (17th century AD) it was destroyed by war. Its ancient name is &ldquoZhupu Bridge&rdquo, in the Song dynasty of the first year of Chunhua period, it was changed to "Pingshi Bridge", and in the Qing dynasty emperor Jiaqing built a new bridge and renamed "Anlan Bridge". The original bridge used wood block as base, hanging a thick bamboo cable cross the river, and there are planks as bridge deck. On both sides of bridge are bamboo rope railings, total length of about 500 meters.


    The Ancient Sacrificial Ritual

    An ancient ritual is held at the beginning of the festival. An orator reads an ode to ancestors county head Li Bing and his son, who planned and managed the project in 256 BC. A sacred dance with national dress from the Warring States Period (475–221 BC) is performed, and offerings are burned as gifts to the ancestors.

    The sacrificial ritual reflects local people's admiration, praise, and esteem towards their forefathers, which are held to be great virtues by Chinese people.

    The Water Releasing Ceremony

    The climax of the festival is the Water Releasing Ceremony, with a bamboo pole dance as the opening performance. After an official in an ancient costume, riding a horse, passes the message for the water releasing to begin, strong workers open the cofferdam to release the water.


    [edit] Engineering Constructions

    [edit] Irrigation Head

    Li Bing’s Irrigation System consists of three main constructions that work in harmony with one another to ensure against flooding and keep the fields well supplied with water:

    The Yuzui or Fish Mouth Levee, named for its conical head that is said to resemble the mouth of a fish, is the key part of Li Bing’s construction. It is an artificial levee that divides the water into inner and outer streams. [15] The inner stream carries approximately 40%, rising to 60% during flood, of the river’s flow into the irrigation system whilst that outer stream drains away the rest, flushing out much of the silt and sediment. [16]

    The Feishayan or Flying Sand Weir has a 200 m-wide opening that connects the inner and outer streams. [17] This ensures against flooding by allowing the natural swirling flow of the water to drain out excess water from the inner to the outer stream. A modern reinforced concrete weir has replaced Li Bing’s original weighted bamboo baskets. [18]

    The Baopingkou or Bottle-Neck Channel, which Li Bing gouged through the mountain, is the final part of the system. The channel distributes the water to the farmlands to the west, whilst the narrow entrance, that gives it its name, works as a check gate, creating the whirlpool flow that carries away the excess water over Flying Sand Fence, to ensure against flooding. [19]

    [edit] Anlan Suspension Bridge

    Anlan or Couple's Bridge spans the full width of the river connecting the artificial island to both banks and is known as one of the Five Ancient Bridges of China. Li Bing’s original Zhupu Bridge only spanned the inner stream connecting the levee to the foot of Mount Yulei. This was replaced in the Song Dynasty by Pingshi Bridge which burned down during the wars that marked the end of the Ming Dynasty. [20]

    In 1803 during the Qing Dynasty a local man named He Xiande and his wife proposed the construction of a replacement, made of wooden plates and bamboo handrails, to span both streams and this was nicknamed Couple’s Bridge in their honour. This was replaced in 1970 by a modern bridge of reinforced concrete and steel chains that is now opened to visitors. [21]


    Conclusion

    The Qin dynasty is the imperial era of China. The legacy left by Qin Shi Huang unified the Chinese people and made the dynasty stronger.

    The next dynasty, Han, and the following dynasties from Qin succeeded from Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor’s initiation. His harsh leadership in unifying China is mostly criticized, but the philosophy of legalism is positively acknowledged today with the achievements made in his period.

    Qin Shi Huang formulated a complete centralized political system, which laid the theoretical foundation for the feudal rule of more than two thousand years. Although the Qin Dynasty was very short-lived, Qin Shihuang’s ruling thought, and the ruling pattern continued. Such influence is difficult to compare with any dynasty and emperor.


    Watch the video: Live: How has Dujiangyan Irrigation System become a living historical relic? (February 2023).

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